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History of Gifted Education


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A Brief History of Gifted Education
Timeline created by NAGC
Presentation created by Brian Housand, PhD

Published in: Education

History of Gifted Education

  1. 1. A History of Gifted Education
  2. 2. 1868     William  Torrey  Harris,  superintendent  of  public   schools  for  St.  Louis,   ins;tutes  the  earliest   systema;c  efforts  in  public  schools  to  educate   gi>ed  students.  
  3. 3.   1869     Francis  Galton’s  seminal   work,  Hereditary  Genius,  is   published  indica;ng  that   intelligence  was  passed   through  successive   genera;ons.  His  biographical  study  of  over  400  Bri;sh  men  throughout  history  leads  him   to  conclude  through   sta;s;cal  methods  that  intelligence  was  derived  from   heredity  and  natural   selec;on.      
  4. 4. 1901Worster,  MassachuseHs  opened  the  first   special  school  for  gi>ed  children.        
  5. 5.   1905    French  researchers,  Binet  and   Simon,  develop  a  series  of   tests  (Binet-­‐Simon)  to   iden;fy  children  of  inferior   intelligence  for  the  purpose   of  separa;ng  them  from  normally  func;oning  children   for  placement  in  special   classrooms.  Their  no;on  of  mental  age  revolu;onizes  the   science  of  psychological   tes;ng  by  capturing   intelligence  in  a  single   numerical  outcome.        
  6. 6. 1908     Henry  Goddard  studies  in   France  with  Binet  and  is   introduced  to  the  Binet-­‐Simon  measurement  scales.  Subsequently,  he  ferries  the   test  back  to  American  in   order  to  translate  it  into  English  and  disseminate  it  to   American  educators  and   psychologists.        
  7. 7. 1916    Lewis  Terman,  the  “father”   of  the  gi>ed  educa;on   movement,  publishes  the   Stanford-­‐Binet,  forever  changing  intelligence  tes;ng   and  the  face  of  American   educa;on  
  8. 8. 1917    The  United  States’  entry  into  World  War  I  necessitates  the   mobiliza;on  of  a  large  scale   army.  The  Army  Alpha  and   Beta  were  created  and   administered  to  over  one   million  recruits,  further   legi;ma;zing  intelligence  tes;ng  in  both  academia  and   with  the  general  public.      
  9. 9. 1918    Lulu  Stedman  establishes  an   “opportunity  room”  for   gi>ed  students  within  the  University  Training  School  at   the  Southern  Branch  of  the   University  of  California.    
  10. 10. 1921     Lewis  Terman  begins  what   has  remained  the  longest  running  longitudinal  study  of   gi>ed  children  with  an   original  sample  of  1,500   gi>ed  children.  
  11. 11. 1922     Leta  S.  Hollingworth   begins  the  Special  Opportunity  Class  at  P.  S.   165  in  New  York  City  for  gi>ed  students.  This  class   would  yield  nearly  forty   research  ar;cles,  a  textbook,  and  blueprints   for  Hollingworth’s  work   at  P.  S.  500,  the  Speyer   School.  
  12. 12. 1925     Lewis  Terman  publishes  Gene.c   Studies  of  Genius,  concluding  that   gi>ed  students  were:  (a)  qualita;vely  different  in  school,  (b)   slightly  beHer  physically  and   emo;onally  in  comparison  to   normal  students,  (c)  superior  in  academic  subjects  in  comparison  to   the  average  students,  (d)   emo;onally  stable,  (e)  most   successful  when  educa;on  and   family  values  were  held  in  high   regard  by  the  family,  and  (f)   infinitely  variable  in  combina;on  with  the  number  of  traits  exhibited   by  those  in  the  study.  This  is  the  first  volume  in  a  five-­‐volume  study   spanning  nearly  40  years.  
  13. 13. 1926     Leta  Hollingworth   publishes  Gi3ed  Child:   Their  Nature  and   Nurture,  what  is  considered  to  be  the  first   textbook  on  gi>ed   educa;on.  
  14. 14. 1936Hollingworth  establishes  P.  S.  500,  the  Speyer  School,  for   gi>ed  children  ages  7-­‐9.  
  15. 15. 1944G.I  Bill  of  Rights  making  a  college  educa;on  available  to   veterans  from  World  War  II  who  would  otherwise  not   have  had  the  opportunity  to  pursue  higher  educa;on.          
  16. 16. 1950     J.  P.  Guilford  gives  the  key  note  address  at  the  annual  APA  conven;on,   challenging  an   examina;on  of   intelligence  as  a   mul;dimensional   construct.          
  17. 17. 1950     Na;onal  Science  Founda;on   Act  provides  federal  support  for  research  and  educa;on  in   mathema;cs,  physical   sciences,  and  engineering.        
  18. 18. 1954    The  Na.onal  Associa.on  of   Gi3ed  Children  is  founded  under  the  leadership  of  Ann   Isaacs.        
  19. 19. 1954  Brown  vs.  The  Board  of  Educa;on  ends  “separate  but  equal  educa;on.”     
  20. 20. 1957 The  Soviet  Union  launches  Sputnik,   sparking  the  United  States  to   reexamine  its  human  capital  and   quality  of  American  schooling   par;cularly  in  mathema;cs  and   science.  As  a  result,  substan;al  amounts  of  money  pour  into  iden;fying   the  brightest  and  talented  students   who  would  best  profit  from  advanced   math,  science,  and  technology   programming.  
  21. 21. 1958     The  Na;onal  Defense  Educa;on  Act  passes.  This  is  the  first  large-­‐scale  effort   by  the  federal  government  in  gi>ed   educa;on.                
  22. 22. 1964   The  Civil  Rights  Act  passes,   emphasizing  equal  opportuni;es  including  those   in  educa;on.                
  23. 23.   1974    The  Office  of  the  Gi>ed  and  Talented  housed  within  the   U.  S  Office  of  Educa;on  is   given  official  status.              
  24. 24. 1972    The  Marland  Report-­‐The  first   formal  defini;on  is  issued  encouraging  schools  to  define   gi>edness  broadly,  along   with  academic  and   intellectual  talent  the  defini;on  includes  leadership  ability,  visual  and  performing   arts,  crea;ve  or  produc;ve   thinking,  and  psychomotor   ability.  [Note:    psychomotor   ability  is  excluded  from   subsequent  revisions  of  the   federal  defini.on.]    
  25. 25. 1975     Public  Law  94-­‐142  The   Educa;on  for  all   Handicapped  Children  Act.  This  Act  establishes  a  federal   mandate  to  serve  children  with  special  educa;on  needs,  but  does  not  include  children   with  gi>s  and  talents.    
  26. 26. 1983     A  Na;on  at  Risk  reports  scores  of  America’s  brightest   students  and  their  failure  to   compete  with  interna;onal   counterparts.  The  report   includes  policies  and  prac;ces  in  gi>ed  educa;on,   raising  academic  standards,   and  promo;ng  appropriate  curriculum  for  gi>ed  learners.  
  27. 27. 1988     Congress  passes  the  Jacob   Javits  Gi>ed  and  Talented   Students  Educa;on  Act  as  part  of  the  Reauthoriza;on  of   the  Elementary  and   Secondary  Educa;on  Act.      
  28. 28. 1990    Na;onal  Research  Centers  on   the  Gi>ed  and  Talented  are  established  at  the  University  of  Connec;cut,  University  of  Virginia,  Yale  University,  and   the  University  of  Georgia.              
  29. 29. 1993 Na;onal  Excellence:  The  Case   for  Developing  Americas   Talent  issued  by  the  United   States  Department  of   Educa;on  outlining  how   America  neglects  its  most   talented  youth.  The  report   also  makes  a  number  of   recommenda;ons  influencing   the  last  decade  of  research  in   the  field  of  gi>ed  educa;on.
  30. 30. 1998     NAGC  publishes  Pre-­‐K-­‐Grade   12  Gi3ed  Program  Standards   to  provide  guidance  in  seven   key  areas  for  programs   serving  gi>ed  and  talented   students.
  31. 31. 2002     The  No  Child  Le>  Behind  Act  (NCLB)  is   passed  as  the  reauthoriza;on  of  the   Elementary  and  Secondary  Educa;on   Act.    The  Javits  program  is  included  in   NCLB,  and  expanded  to  offer   compe;;ve  statewide  grants.    The   defini;on  of  gi>ed  and  talented   students  is  modified  again.     Students,  children,  or  youth  who  give  evidence  of  high  achievement  capability   in  areas  such  as  intellectual,,   ar.s.c,  or  leadership  capacity,  or  in   specific  academic  fields,  and  who  need   services  and  not  ordinarily   provided  by  the  school  in  order  to  fully   develop  those  
  32. 32. 2004     A  Na;on  Deceived:  How  Schools  Hold  Back  America’s  Brightest  Students,  a  na;onal   research-­‐based  report  on   accelera;on  strategies  for   advanced  learners  is  published  by  the  Belin-­‐Blank   Center  at  the  University  of   Iowa.