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The Shift to Open Access Publishing


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Lecture to the UCL Digital Humanities Dept, October 19th 2015

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The Shift to Open Access Publishing

  1. 1. / @ubiquitypress Brian Hole, Founder and CEO UCL Digital Humanities, October 19th 2015 The shift to open access publishing
  2. 2. / @ubiquitypress Overview  About ubiquity press  What is open access?  History of OA  The OA business model  Current situation  The future
  3. 3. / @ubiquitypress About Ubiquity Press  Spun out of UCL in 2012  Researcher-led, 100% open access  50+ years publishing experience (BioMed Central, PLoS, Elsevier)  Lean, cost-efficient publishing model  Comprehensive approach: journals, books, data, software, hardware, wetware…
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  5. 5. / @ubiquitypress What is Open Access?
  6. 6. / @ubiquitypress Most simply: No barriers to access or reuse Open Access
  7. 7. / @ubiquitypress Open Access By “open access” to this literature, we mean its free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited. Budapest Open Access Initiative OA allows users to “copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship.” Bethsida/Berlin statements ✔ ✗ ✗
  8. 8. / @ubiquitypress The Social Contract of Science • Validation • Dissemination • Further development Scientific Malpractice • Data • Results • Software • Hardware, wetware… #@%$#@ % #@%$# Source:
  9. 9. / @ubiquitypress Source: Washington Post, May 7 2013 / Imgur: than-half-of-humanity-lives-within-this-circle/
  10. 10. / @ubiquitypress Source: Nature News, 20 April 2011, DOI: 10.1038/472276a
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  12. 12. / @ubiquitypress Publishing (Gold open access) • Publisher makes content freely available • Content has been through peer review, anti-plagiarism checks, etc. • Publisher may require an article processing charge (APC) Two kinds of delivery Archiving (Green open access) • Institution makes a pre-publication version of content freely available in own repository, with no charge • Content is released early and immediately
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  14. 14. / @ubiquitypress A Very Short History of Open Access Publishing
  15. 15. / @ubiquitypress • First online OA journals published in 1990 with the birth of the WWW • Mainly humanities and social sciences • Individual efforts 1990 For more detail see Peter Suber’s timeline: ne.htm
  16. 16. / @ubiquitypress • arXiv established in 1991 at Los Alamos National Laboratory, to store physics preprints • Moved to Cornell University in 1999 • Now also hosts astronomy, mathematics, computer science, quantitative biology, quantitative finance and statistics preprints 1991 • As of 20.10.13: 883,802 preprints
  17. 17. / @ubiquitypress • National Library of Medicine launches PubMed Central in 2000 • Mandated deposit for NIH-funded research since 2008 • Green OA archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature 2000 • Allows embargoes • 2011: ca. 2.5 million articles
  18. 18. / @ubiquitypress • BioMed Central launches OA platform in 2000 • First to establish the model of Article Processing Charges (APCs) • London-based 2000 • Currently runs ca. 70 journals in-house • Bought by Springer in 2008
  19. 19. / @ubiquitypress • The Public Library of Science (PLoS) begins OA publishing • PLoS ONE is the world’s first ‘mega-journal’ and its largest • Now the largest OA publisher, though only 7 journals 2002 • Policy is that “everything good enough to publish, will be published” • Publishes ca. 3,000 articles per month
  20. 20. / @ubiquitypress • Other major publishers begin launching ‘hybrid’ OA journals • 2007: Hindawi converts to OA and mass-launches journals 2007-2010 • PLoS One clones begin to appear (e.g. SAGE Open and BMJ Open in 2010) • Now the largest OA publisher by titles, with over 300
  21. 21. / @ubiquitypress • eLIFE • The Ubiquity Partner Network 2012 • PeerJ • New OA models are emerging: • Collaboratively run journal from 3 major funders: Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Max Planck Society and the Wellcome Trust • Experimenting with the idea of lifetime memberships for authors • Enabling sustainable OA publishing by university presses • Support for new business models
  22. 22. / @ubiquitypress The Ubiquity Press Open Access Business Model
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  24. 24. / @ubiquitypress Article Processing Charges (APCs)
  25. 25. / @ubiquitypress Academic publishing is going to change The UK has mandated open access publishing for all state funded research, EU and US to follow Academic societies want open access, but worry about losing subscription income Legacy publishers are unwilling and unable to lower fees, so still very expensive (average charge £2000 per article published) Opportunity Challenge
  26. 26. / @ubiquitypress Lower cost enables experimentation with new models Addressing the cost barrier • Open Library of the Humanities – library funding model • University of California Press – Library funding, peer review payments • INASP – developing world journals • LingOA – disciplinary shift to OA
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  32. 32. / @ubiquitypress The Current Climate and What this Means for OA
  33. 33. / @ubiquitypress • Governments fund universities to do research. Stats on UK research vs. library spending?Research Bought, Then Paid For By MICHAEL B. EISEN January 10, 2012 “Congress should move to enshrine a simple principle in United States law: if taxpayers paid for it, they own it.” • These research results are only available to those universities (not to the public sector etc.) • They then fund each university library to buy back the published results of that work.
  34. 34. / @ubiquitypress 16 July 2012 The new policy, which will apply to all qualifying publications being submitted for publication from 1 April 2013, states that peer reviewed research papers which result from research that is wholly or partially funded by the Research Councils: RCUK announces new Open Access policy • must be published in journals which are compliant with Research Council policy on Open Access
  35. 35. / @ubiquitypress The Wellcome Trust plans to withhold a portion of grant money from scientists who do not make the results of their work freely available to the public... In addition, any research papers that are not freely available will not be counted as part of a scientist's track record when Wellcome assesses any future applications for research funding. The trust is the second largest medical research charity in the world, spending more than £600m on science every year. Its director, Sir Mark Walport, has said that publishing research papers should be considered a cost of a research project in the same way as a piece of lab equipment. Wellcome Trust will penalise scientists who don't embrace open access Wealthy medical charity says it will withhold researchers' final grant payments if they fail to make their results open access The Guardian, Thursday 28 June 2012
  36. 36. / @ubiquitypress • Coordinated moves towards OA mandate policies in EU “[Open Access… ] is essential for Europe's ability to enhance its economic performance and improve its capacity to compete through knowledge. Open Access can also boost the visibility of European research, and in particular offer small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) access to the latest research for exploitation.” • Large publishers are very international and lobby actively • Recent example of the Research Works Act
  37. 37. / @ubiquitypress Research Works Act (H.R. 3699) • Massive international outcry, especially from researchers • Contained provisions to prohibit open-access mandates for federally funded research • Congress members who introduced the act ‘motivated by large donations by the academic publisher X’
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  39. 39. / @ubiquitypress Amid boycott, X backtracks on research bill Journal publisher still opposes current U.S. rules mandating access to taxpayer- funded research CBC News Posted: Feb 27, 2012 One of the largest academic publishers in the world withdrew its support Monday from a controversial U.S. bill, the Research Works Act, that critics feel would restrict public access to published, publicly-funded research. The change of heart by Dutch publisher X follows a boycott of its journals and publishing ventures by thousands of researchers around the world.
  40. 40. / @ubiquitypress • Released in August 2012 The Finch Report • Very important for UK and sets a precedent for other countries • Gold Open Access will be mandated for publicly-funded research • Universities will switch from ‘big deals’ to paying from APC funds • Research Councils will fund universities for this content/uploads/2012/06/Finch-Group-report-executive- summary-FINAL-VERSION.pdf
  41. 41. / @ubiquitypress • Main opposition to the Finch Report is from Steven Harnad1 Debate • Extremely vocal, one sided and pro- green OA only • Argues that Finch is wrong to mandate gold OA instead of green 1. Steven Harnad: the-Finch-Hypothesis-on-Green-OA-Mandate-Ineffectiveness.html 2. Cameron Neylon: report-good-steps-but-missed-opportunities • More balanced criticism is that the government should require complimentary green OA as well, and mandate the CC-By license2
  42. 42. / @ubiquitypress • Text and Data Mining (TDM) New battlegrounds 1. Licences for Europe Structured stakeholder dialogue 2013: dialogue/en/content/about-site 2. Text and Data Mining: STM Statement & Sample Licence: statement-sample-licence/ 3. Global Coalition response to STM: education-organizations-calls-on-stm-to-withdraw-new-model-licenses 4. Digital Opportunity: A review of Intellectual Property and Growth: An independent report by Ian Hargreaves: • Protected in countries such as US, Japan through Fair Use • EC working groups1 and STM association2 sought licensing solution • Strongly opposed by researchers, libraries etc.,3 caused EC to back down • What is really needed is full copyright reform, similar to UK’s Hargreaves Review4
  43. 43. / @ubiquitypress For more information: Questions? @ubiquitypress