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The shift to open access publishing 
Brian Hole, Founder and CEO 
UCL Digital Humanities, October 20th 2014 
brian.hole@ub...
Overview 
 About ubiquity press 
 What is open access? 
 History of OA 
 The OA business model 
 Current situation 
...
About Ubiquity Press 
 Spun out of University College London in 2012 
 Researcher-led, 100% open access 
 50+ years pub...
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
What is Open Access? 
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
Open Access 
Most simply: 
No barriers to access or reuse 
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquityp...
Open Access 
By “open access” to this literature, we mean its free availability on the public 
internet, permitting any us...
The Social Contract 
of Science 
• Dissemination 
• Validation 
• Further development 
Scientific Malpractice 
• Results 
...
Two kinds of delivery 
‘Gold open access’ (publishing) 
• Publisher makes content freely available 
• Content has been thr...
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
A Very Short History of 
Open Access Publishing 
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
• First online OA journals 
published in 1990 with the 
birth of the WWW 
• Mainly humanities and 
social sciences 
• Indi...
• arXiv established in 1991 
at Los Alamos National Laboratory, to 
store physics preprints 
• Moved to Cornell University...
• National Library of Medicine launches 
PubMed Central in 2000 
• Green OA archive of biomedical and life 
sciences journ...
• BioMed Central launches OA platform 
in 2000 
• London-based 
• First to establish the model of Article 
Processing Char...
• The Public Library of Science (PLoS) 
begins OA publishing 
• Policy is that “everything good enough 
to publish, will b...
• Other major publishers begin launching 
‘hybrid’ OA journals 
• 2007: Hindawi converts to OA and 
mass-launches journals...
• New OA models are emerging: 
• eLIFE 
• Collaboratively run journal from 
3 major funders: Howard Hughes 
Medical Instit...
The Ubiquity Press 
Open Access 
Business Model 
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
Article Processing Charges (APCs) 
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
Academic publishing is going to change 
Opportunity 
 The UK has mandated open access publishing for 
all state funded re...
Addressing the cost barrier 
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
The Current Climate and 
What this Means for OA 
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
• Governments fund 
universities to do research. 
Stats on UK research vs. library 
Respseeanrdcinhg ?Bought, Then Paid Fo...
RCUK announces new Open Access policy 
16 July 2012 
The new policy, which will apply to all qualifying publications 
bein...
Wellcome Trust will penalise 
scientists who don't embrace open access 
Wealthy medical charity says it will withhold rese...
• Coordinated moves 
towards OA mandate 
policies in EU 
“[Open Access… ] is essential for 
Europe's ability to enhance it...
Research Works Act (H.R. 3699) 
• Contained provisions to prohibit 
open-access mandates for 
federally funded research 
•...
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
Amid boycott, X backtracks on research bill 
Journal publisher still opposes current U.S. rules mandating access to taxpay...
The Finch Report 
• Released in August 2012 
• Very important for UK and sets 
a precedent for other countries 
• Gold Ope...
• Main opposition to the Finch Report is 
from Steven Harnad1 
Debate 
• Extremely vocal, one sided and pro-green 
OA only...
New battlegrounds 
• Text and Data Mining (TDM) 
• Protected in countries such as US, Japan through Fair Use 
• EC working...
TDM SLIDE 
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
• Many disciplines (e.g. Humanities) are yet to 
fully benefit from electronic OA publishing 
because half of their output...
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
For more information: 
Questions? 
brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com 
@ubiquitypress 
http://www.ubiquitypress.com 
http://wiki...
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The Shift to Open Access Publishing

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Lecture given at the UCL Centre for Digital Humanities, London, UK, on October 20, 2014.

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The Shift to Open Access Publishing

  1. 1. The shift to open access publishing Brian Hole, Founder and CEO UCL Digital Humanities, October 20th 2014 brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  2. 2. Overview  About ubiquity press  What is open access?  History of OA  The OA business model  Current situation  The future brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  3. 3. About Ubiquity Press  Spun out of University College London in 2012  Researcher-led, 100% open access  50+ years publishing experience (BioMed Central, PLoS, Elsevier)  Lean, cost-efficient publishing model  Comprehensive approach: journals, books, data, software, hardware, wetware… brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  4. 4. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  5. 5. What is Open Access? brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  6. 6. Open Access Most simply: No barriers to access or reuse brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  7. 7. Open Access By “open access” to this literature, we mean its free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited. Budapest Open Access Initiative OA allows users to “copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship.” Bethsida/Berlin statements ✔ ✗ ✗ brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  8. 8. The Social Contract of Science • Dissemination • Validation • Further development Scientific Malpractice • Results • Data • Software • Hardware, wetware… #@%$#@ % #@%$# Source: http://www.smbc-comics.com/index.php?db=comics&id=2015 brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  9. 9. Two kinds of delivery ‘Gold open access’ (publishing) • Publisher makes content freely available • Content has been through peer review, anti-plagiarism checks, etc. • Publisher may require an article processing charge (APC) ‘Green open access’ (archiving) • Institution makes a pre-publication version of content freely available in own repository, with no charge • Content is released early and immediately brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  10. 10. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  11. 11. A Very Short History of Open Access Publishing brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  12. 12. • First online OA journals published in 1990 with the birth of the WWW • Mainly humanities and social sciences • Individual efforts 1990 For more detail see Peter Suber’s timeline: http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/timeli ne.htm brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  13. 13. • arXiv established in 1991 at Los Alamos National Laboratory, to store physics preprints • Moved to Cornell University in 1999 • Now also hosts astronomy, mathematics, computer science, quantitative biology, quantitative finance and statistics preprints 1991 • As of 20.10.13: 883,802 preprints http://arxiv.org brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  14. 14. • National Library of Medicine launches PubMed Central in 2000 • Green OA archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature • Mandated deposit for NIH-funded research since 2008 2000 • Allows embargoes • 2011: ca. 2.5 million articles http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  15. 15. • BioMed Central launches OA platform in 2000 • London-based • First to establish the model of Article Processing Charges (APCs) 2000 • Currently runs ca. 70 journals in-house • Bought by Springer in 2008 http://www.biomedcentral.com brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  16. 16. • The Public Library of Science (PLoS) begins OA publishing • Policy is that “everything good enough to publish, will be published” • Now the largest OA publisher, though only 7 journals • PLoS ONE is the world’s first ‘mega-journal’ and its largest 2002 • Publishes ca. 3,000 articles per month http://www.plos.org brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  17. 17. • Other major publishers begin launching ‘hybrid’ OA journals • 2007: Hindawi converts to OA and mass-launches journals 2007-2010 • Now the largest OA publisher by titles, with over 300 • PLoS One clones begin to appear (e.g. SAGE Open and BMJ Open in 2010) http://www.hindawi.com http://sgo.sagepub.com http://bmjopen.bmj.com brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  18. 18. • New OA models are emerging: • eLIFE • Collaboratively run journal from 3 major funders: Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Max Planck Society and the Wellcome Trust • PeerJ • Experimenting with the idea of lifetime memberships for authors • UP metajournals 2012 • Encouraging OA publishing also of research data and software http://www.elifesciences.org https://peerj.com http://metajnl.com brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  19. 19. The Ubiquity Press Open Access Business Model brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  20. 20. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  21. 21. Article Processing Charges (APCs) brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  22. 22. Academic publishing is going to change Opportunity  The UK has mandated open access publishing for all state funded research, EU and US to follow  Legacy publishers are unwilling and unable to lower fees, so still very expensive (average charge £2000 per article published) Challenge  Academic societies want open access, but worry about losing subscription income brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  23. 23. Addressing the cost barrier brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  24. 24. The Current Climate and What this Means for OA brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  25. 25. • Governments fund universities to do research. Stats on UK research vs. library Respseeanrdcinhg ?Bought, Then Paid For By MICHAEL B. EISEN January 10, 2012 “Congress should move to enshrine a simple principle in United States law: if taxpayers paid for it, they own it.” • They then fund each university library to buy back the published results of that work. • These research results are only available to those universities (not to the public sector etc.) brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  26. 26. RCUK announces new Open Access policy 16 July 2012 The new policy, which will apply to all qualifying publications being submitted for publication from 1 April 2013, states that peer reviewed research papers which result from research that is wholly or partially funded by the Research Councils: • must be published in journals which are compliant with Research Council policy on Open Access brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  27. 27. Wellcome Trust will penalise scientists who don't embrace open access Wealthy medical charity says it will withhold researchers' final grant payments if they fail to make their results open access The Guardian, Thursday 28 June 2012 The Wellcome Trust plans to withhold a portion of grant money from scientists who do not make the results of their work freely available to the public... In addition, any research papers that are not freely available will not be counted as part of a scientist's track record when Wellcome assesses any future applications for research funding. The trust is the second largest medical research charity in the world, spending more than £600m on science every year. Its director, Sir Mark Walport, has said that publishing research papers should be considered a cost of a research project in the same way as a piece of lab equipment. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  28. 28. • Coordinated moves towards OA mandate policies in EU “[Open Access… ] is essential for Europe's ability to enhance its economic performance and improve its capacity to compete through knowledge. Open Access can also boost the visibility of European research, and in particular offer small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) access to the latest research for exploitation.” • Large publishers are very international and lobby actively • Recent example of the Research Works Act brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  29. 29. Research Works Act (H.R. 3699) • Contained provisions to prohibit open-access mandates for federally funded research • Congress members who introduced the act ‘motivated by large donations by the academic publisher X’ • Massive international outcry, especially from researchers brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  30. 30. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  31. 31. Amid boycott, X backtracks on research bill Journal publisher still opposes current U.S. rules mandating access to taxpayer-funded research CBC News Posted: Feb 27, 2012 One of the largest academic publishers in the world withdrew its support Monday from a controversial U.S. bill, the Research Works Act, that critics feel would restrict public access to published, publicly-funded research. The change of heart by Dutch publisher X follows a boycott of its journals and publishing ventures by thousands of researchers around the world. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  32. 32. The Finch Report • Released in August 2012 • Very important for UK and sets a precedent for other countries • Gold Open Access will be mandated for publicly-funded research • Universities will switch from ‘big deals’ to paying from APC funds • Research Councils will fund universities for this http://www.researchinfonet.org/wp-content/ uploads/2012/06/Finch-Group-report-executive-summary- FINAL-VERSION.pdf brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  33. 33. • Main opposition to the Finch Report is from Steven Harnad1 Debate • Extremely vocal, one sided and pro-green OA only • Argues that Finch is wrong to mandate gold OA instead of green • More balanced criticism is that the government should require complimentary green OA as well, and mandate the CC-By license2 1. Steven Harnad: http://openaccess.eprints.org/index.php?/archives/951-Testing-the- Finch-Hypothesis-on-Green-OA-Mandate-Ineffectiveness.html 2. Cameron Neylon: http://cameronneylon.net/blog/first-thoughts-on-the-finch-report- good-steps-but-missed-opportunities brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  34. 34. New battlegrounds • Text and Data Mining (TDM) • Protected in countries such as US, Japan through Fair Use • EC working groups1 and STM association2 sought licensing solution • Strongly opposed by researchers, libraries etc.,3 caused EC to back down • What is really needed is full copyright reform, similar to UK’s Hargreaves Review4 1. Licences for Europe Structured stakeholder dialogue 2013: http://ec.europa.eu/licences-for-europe-dialogue/ en/content/about-site 2. Text and Data Mining: STM Statement & Sample Licence: http://www.stm-assoc.org/text-and-data-mining-stm-statement- sample-licence/ 3. Global Coalition response to STM: http://www.plos.org/global-coalition-of-access-to-research-science-and-education- organizations-calls-on-stm-to-withdraw-new-model-licenses 4. Digital Opportunity: A review of Intellectual Property and Growth: An independent report by Ian Hargreaves: http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20140603093549/http://www.ipo.gov.uk/ipreview.htm brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  35. 35. TDM SLIDE brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  36. 36. • Many disciplines (e.g. Humanities) are yet to fully benefit from electronic OA publishing because half of their output is in book form • Many scholarly monographs are overpriced and poorly distributed • “At this price, people will only read the reviews” • Research libraries are increasingly looking to save money • One e copy for multiple students • No shelf space requirements • No lending administration overhead brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  37. 37. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  38. 38. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  39. 39. brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress
  40. 40. For more information: Questions? brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com @ubiquitypress http://www.ubiquitypress.com http://wiki.creativecommons.org/Frequently_Asked_Questions brian.hole@ubiquitypress.com www.ubiquitypress.com / @ubiquitypress

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