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Total system efficiency

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A water system that's designed around pump hydraulic efficiency alone is likely to miss a lot of other important factors

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Total system efficiency

  1. 1. TOTAL SYSTEM EFFICIENCY Brian Gongol DJ Gongol & Associates, Inc. March 22, 2016 Nebraska Rural Water Association Conference Kearney, Nebraska
  2. 2. Efficiency: Who really cares? Not the person who drives this to the grocery store
  3. 3. Of course we SHOULD care, right?
  4. 4. Resources are finite Only the state capitol gets a gold dome
  5. 5. Water systems are big users of energy
  6. 6. Utilities have a special responsibility You provide essential services, usually under a monopoly or near-monopoly condition
  7. 7. Rate dollars are after-tax dollars
  8. 8. Money saved is a leveraged bonus
  9. 9. Substitution effect
  10. 10. We can say it's all for the environment
  11. 11. But it's really about public health
  12. 12. Money wasted displaces other public goods
  13. 13. The problem is, we really DON'T care "How can you say that?" Well, it's simple...
  14. 14. Revealed preferences
  15. 15. What's your household public works budget? (...if you even bother to have one)
  16. 16. How does it compare to your travel budget?
  17. 17. Why we don't really care
  18. 18. Low electrical rates
  19. 19. Cheap borrowing
  20. 20. Low regard for worker time
  21. 21. Public disregard for the state of public works
  22. 22. The day of reckoning cometh
  23. 23. Why we will be forced to care
  24. 24. Rising energy costs
  25. 25. Carbon emission regs and electricity costs
  26. 26. European electricity costs vs. our costs
  27. 27. Anticipated shortages of fresh water
  28. 28. Rising treatment costs pressuring budgets
  29. 29. Declining or flat populations
  30. 30. Aging infrastructure
  31. 31. Higher future interest rates
  32. 32. Shrinking water workforce
  33. 33. Compounding costs of deferred maintenance
  34. 34. Costs of catastrophic failure
  35. 35. The conventional definition of "efficiency" Pump hydraulic efficiency
  36. 36. The second order definition is still too narrow Maybe include motor efficiency or throw in a VFD so it looks good?
  37. 37. Measure efficiency by total system impact Think of yourself as a trustee of public assets. You serve the public best by delivering the services they expect with a minimum of waste.
  38. 38. Not everything that counts can be measured The love of a child, puppy kisses, the smell of flowers after a rain
  39. 39. But counting is a good place to start
  40. 40. What we might measure to gauge efficiency
  41. 41. Energy consumption
  42. 42. Losses (especially unmetered losses)
  43. 43. Labor costs (including opportunity costs)
  44. 44. Total cost of ownership (TCO)
  45. 45. Everything can be converted to dollars
  46. 46. Even hidden savings deserve a dollar value
  47. 47. Boards don't want to know your specialty
  48. 48. Dollars are common currency to every industry
  49. 49. Total system efficiency includes: Hydraulic efficiency Energy efficiency Maintenance efficiency Longevity/durability Adaptability to future conditions
  50. 50. Part 1: Pump hydraulic efficiency
  51. 51. Clearances
  52. 52. Pump specific speed A dimensionless value that indicates the relative efficiency of a pump impeller design
  53. 53. Vane adjustments (numbers, angles)
  54. 54. Smooth coatings
  55. 55. Straight pipe entering the suction
  56. 56. Suction diffusers (straightening flow)
  57. 57. Part 2: Motor/engine efficiency
  58. 58. 110/220/460 volt differences
  59. 59. VFDs
  60. 60. Soft starters
  61. 61. Two-speed motors
  62. 62. Across-the-line starters
  63. 63. High-efficiency/premium-efficiency
  64. 64. VFD misapplication: Static head prevails
  65. 65. Fill towers at full speed
  66. 66. Hydrostatic tanks
  67. 67. VFD misapplication: Missing the (BE) point
  68. 68. Transmission losses
  69. 69. Part 3: Valves
  70. 70. Surge control
  71. 71. Save on pipe damage If waves on a beach can erode boulders into sand, what are surge waves doing inside your pipes?
  72. 72. Air control
  73. 73. Maximize pipe diameter
  74. 74. Throttling
  75. 75. Emergency cut-in valves for an emergency
  76. 76. Part 4: Pipework
  77. 77. Bends
  78. 78. Pipe smoothness
  79. 79. Corrosion and losses
  80. 80. Friction losses aren't just theoretical
  81. 81. Part 5: Labor and TCO efficiency
  82. 82. Preventive/predictive maintenance Fix-on-failure wouldn't work for an airline, so why do utilities use it so much?
  83. 83. Preventive maintenance and knowledge
  84. 84. Labor training and continuous improvement
  85. 85. Quantify downtime
  86. 86. Part 6: Longevity/durability
  87. 87. Major repair work is disruptive and costly
  88. 88. Realistically assess how long things will last
  89. 89. Is the system robust or fragile?
  90. 90. Can it survive periods of neglect?
  91. 91. Part 7: Auditing your system
  92. 92. Total water supplied (own plus imports)
  93. 93. Authorized consumption (billed/unbilled)
  94. 94. Losses (apparent and real)
  95. 95. Apparent losses  Unauthorized consumption  Metering error  Data errors
  96. 96. Real losses  Distribution losses  Tank leakage and overflow  Service connection leakage
  97. 97. Benchmarks and baselines
  98. 98. To recap  We ignore efficiency  We won't forever  Pump efficiency matters  It's not the only thing by far  Total cost of ownership matters most  TCO includes hydraulics, motors/engines, maintenance, longevity, and adaptability to future conditions
  99. 99. Questions?  Thank you for coming!
  100. 100. Thank you for your attention!  Contact us anytime with questions  Brian Gongol  DJ Gongol & Associates  515-223-4144  info@djgongol.com
  101. 101. References:  US electric prices:  http://www.eia.gov/electricity/data/browser/#/topic/7? agg=0,1&geo=vvvvvvvvvvvvo&endsec=vg&linechart=ELEC.PRICE.US-ALL.M~~~ELEC.PRICE.WNC- ALL.M&columnchart=ELEC.PRICE.US-ALL.M&map=ELEC.PRICE.US- ALL.M&freq=M&start=200101&end=201402&ctype=linechart&ltype=pin&rtype=s&maptype=0&rse=0&pin=  Germany, EU electric prices:  http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained/index.php/Electricity_and_natural_gas_price_statistics  Fed funds rate:  http://research.stlouisfed.org/fred2/series/FEDFUNDS  Motor efficiency standards:  https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.cfm?id=18151  Suction vane drawing and sample pump curve courtesy Patterson Pump Co.  Valve photographs courtesy GA Industries  Some material in Part 7 adapted from the AWWA water loss auditing tool:  http://www.awwa.org/resources-tools/water-knowledge/water-loss-control.aspx  Special thanks to Shane Kinsey (City of Johnston, Iowa) and Rose Ann DiGiovanni (Patterson Pump Co.) for observations that extended the scope of this presentation  All other photos are original work by and copyright reserved to Brian Gongol

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