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Pumps 101

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A quick primer on pumps

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Pumps 101

  1. 1. BASIC PUMP HYDRAULICS Brian Gongol DJ Gongol & Associates, Inc. June 25, 2017 Kirkwood Annual Water Conference Cedar Rapids, Iowa
  2. 2. Pump: A machine for adding energy to fluid
  3. 3. ...causing it to defy gravity
  4. 4. It's a conversion (but not a religious one)
  5. 5. Atmospheric pressure into something useful
  6. 6. Energy in • Pressure and flow out
  7. 7. Trade-off: Your thumb over a garden hose
  8. 8. Main pump types  Positive displacement  Pushers  Centrifugal  Spinners
  9. 9. Positive displacement physically pushes the water
  10. 10. High, consistent pressures & specific volumes
  11. 11. Diaphragm pumps
  12. 12. Peristaltic pumps
  13. 13. Progressive cavity pumps
  14. 14. Gear pumps
  15. 15. Good with thick fluids that don't like to flow
  16. 16. Centrifugal pumps create pressure differential
  17. 17. Low pressure at eye, high pressure at discharge
  18. 18. Most collection system pumps are centrifugal
  19. 19. Impeller versus propeller
  20. 20. Containing the action of an impeller
  21. 21. Wearplate, impeller, shaft, sealplate, & seal
  22. 22. Three primary styles of centrifugal pump
  23. 23. Flooded suction
  24. 24. Submersible
  25. 25. Self-priming
  26. 26. Create a low-pressure area
  27. 27. Atmospheric pressure pushes into the low
  28. 28. Discharge to higher pressure
  29. 29. Science of atmospheric pressure
  30. 30. Weight of a column of air above you
  31. 31. Forces that offset its effects
  32. 32. Vapor pressure
  33. 33. Losses on the way to the low
  34. 34. Friction en route to the impeller eye
  35. 35. Includes piping and losses inside the pump
  36. 36. Static elevation differences
  37. 37. Also important: A sensible safety factor
  38. 38. A hurricane is one way to think of it...
  39. 39. ...but so is a tire on a wet or muddy road
  40. 40. Pressure and flow as a production frontier
  41. 41. A pump performs where the system allows it
  42. 42. Figuring system head curves
  43. 43. Two pairs of things to consider
  44. 44. Pair 1: Static head and friction head
  45. 45. Pair 2: Suction head and discharge head
  46. 46. The moving target is usually discharge piping
  47. 47. Pipe roughness
  48. 48. Solids buildup (settling and sedimentation)
  49. 49. Mineral deposits and tuberculation
  50. 50. Scouring velocity is important but not enough
  51. 51. Pockets of air can restrict flow, too
  52. 52. Valves and appurtenances: Equivalent length
  53. 53. Plotting today's head curve vs. tomorrow's
  54. 54. Plotting multiple pump speeds
  55. 55. VFDs are no magic bullet
  56. 56. Static heads determine VFD usefulness
  57. 57. Very little about pumping is linear
  58. 58. Opening or closing valves is rarely linear
  59. 59. Pipe diameters and flow rates aren't linear
  60. 60. Friction losses aren't linear
  61. 61. Multiple-pump operation isn't linear, either
  62. 62. Pumps in series increase heads
  63. 63. Pumps in parallel increase flows
  64. 64. Know what you're getting in advance
  65. 65. Parallel operation on a flat system head curve
  66. 66. Parallel ops on a rising system head curve
  67. 67. Parallel-series operation
  68. 68. Parallel-series operation on a curve
  69. 69. Pumps don't suck, but cavitation does
  70. 70. Discharge-side cavitation
  71. 71. Suction-side cavitation
  72. 72. Always use the safest available pump
  73. 73. Safety matters: Deadly gases
  74. 74. Safety matters: Falls
  75. 75. Safety matters: Electrocution
  76. 76. Where a flooded suction makes sense
  77. 77. Where submersibles make sense
  78. 78. Where self-priming pumps make sense
  79. 79. Questions?  Thank you for coming!  Brian Gongol  DJ Gongol & Associates  515-223-4144  info@djgongol.com  Twitter: @djgongol  Call or email anytime
  80. 80. References and credits  Catalog images of pumps courtesy AMT Pump Co.  Hurricane imagery from NOAA (public domain)  http://www.nnvl.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/index.cgi? page=items&ser=112503&large=1  Propeller image from the US Navy (public domain)  http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh- g/ap126-d.htm  Lift station sample diagram and pump cutaway photo courtesy The Gorman-Rupp Co.  All other photos are original work of and copyright reserved by Brian Gongol

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