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PUMP MAINTENANCE
AND TROUBLESHOOTING
Brian Gongol
DJ Gongol & Associates, Inc.
January 27, 2016
NWOD Snowball Conference
K...
Not all maintenance is worth doing!
Maintenance is about one thing
Getting the full life-cycle value from a product
Extending life means actively saving money
Think of operational savings in pretax dollars
$1.25 to $1.33 in pretax income
to the ordinary taxpayer
So let's save some money!
Types of maintenance
 Fix on failure
 Scheduled
 Preventive
 Predictive
Each approach has its place
Fix on failure
When it's cheap, simple, and in-stock, like a pen
Scheduled maintenance
When there is lots of data from prior experience
Preventive maintenance
When a failure puts you at serious risk
of long-term downtime
Predictive maintenance
When the signals of trouble are well-known
and surveillance is cheap
In the context of your health...
Fix on failure
Bandage on a papercut
Scheduled maintenance
Getting your annual physical
(prostate exams, colonoscopies, cholesterol tests...)
Preventive maintenance
Regular exercise
Predictive maintenance
 Blood pressure checks
 Body-composition bathroom scales
 Blood-sugar tests
We rely too heavily on fix-on-failure
(Not a recommended
maintenance strategy.)
You would never fly Fix-On-Failure Airlines
Avoid the curse of Shary Bobbins
Always put safety first
You are the most valuable piece of equipment
Lock out, tag out
Check for gases
Seriously. Check for gases.
Prevent slips, trips, and falls
Carpet pattern designed as if to maximize disorientation
CenturyLink Center, Omaha
Prevent muscle strain
Keep safety equipment in good repair
 Guards
 Belts
 Sensors
 Handrails
Measurement means control
Everyone knows quantitative measurements
Pump run times
Energy consumption
Flows
Pressure readings
Oil temperatures
Motor casing temperatures
But qualitative measurements matter, too
Vibration
Smells/scents/odors
Smells/scents/odors
 bitter
 burnt
 citrusy
 fermented
 fishy
 fresh
 fruity
 grassy
 hot
 moldy
 musty
 oily
...
Sounds
Sounds
 bassy
 buzz
 chirp
 clack
 clap
 click
 crescendo
 dissonant
 echo
 grind
 growl
 harmonic
 hum
 kno...
Why take measurements?
And keep qualitative records?
From fix-on-failure to anticipation
Making the change means
collecting and using data
Not appropriate to everything
Litmus test
If downtime would wake you in the middle of the night
and a replacement isn't on your own shelf,
use some kind...
Make it easy to measure and record
Make it easy to review performance
Take the time to review
I-35W: Calculations were "too much work"
Take records straight to a tablet or netbook
 Eliminates handwriting errors
 Eliminates copying errors
 Promotes rapid ...
Prices are so low, it's highly justifiable
Use free resources
E-mail
Calendars
Charts and task lists
7x7
Make them easy to digest at a glance
People like to keep up unbroken chains
"X" days without a safety incident
Know your indicators
 Problem indicators
 Smoke from under the hood
 Planned indicators
 Squeaking brakes
Conduct a post-mortem on failures and incidents
 What did it cost you?
 What signals were missed?
Primary predictive-maintenance indicators
 Temperatures
 Oil/lubricant conditions
 Ultrasonic analysis
 Vibration
 Pe...
Nobody wants to do the dirtiest job
Create a culture that encourages maintenance
Starting with ownership of the process
Wax/paint/clean the equipment
Broken window effect
A baseline for what's right...
...makes it easier to see when something's wrong
A hidden payback
When you practice regular maintenance,
you get to know the equipment
on an expert level
Expert-level unde...
What you have in common with machines
Some of the things that
make your life more pleasant
help equipment, too
Winter heating
Proper heating in winter prevents freezing
Summer cooling
Well-ventilated motors
are more reliable and more efficient
Turn better maintenance into a game
Rival departments (or shifts)
Rival communities
Leverage your efforts & improve motivation
Friendly rivalries with
something on the line
(pride or a small wager)
raise th...
Make it a measurable goal with a small wager
Doughnuts?
Lunch?
A round of beers?
Buddy system aids information-sharing
Create your own "peer group"
Valuable for comparisons in reports
If you're doing well
The peer group helps you take credit
If you're doing badly
Peer pressure can motivate improvement
If you need more resources
The peer group helps you make the case
Reward good maintenance ideas
Multi-thousand-dollar ideas go un-shared
because people don't think they'll be rewarded
Rewards beget buy-in
"You can achieve amazing progress
if you set a clear goal and find a measure
that will drive progress...
Use mental tricks to help yourself
Make maintenance automatic
Conserve mental energy
Don't make more
choices than
necessary
Color-coded tools
Opt-in versus opt-out
 When the default option is participation, one-third of people
stick with retirement plans who woul...
Add a third choice to make
Add a third choice to make
Batches of three
Just clustering tasks and choices
in groups of three
reduces the mental tax
of decision-making
Conserve mental energy for what matters
"What do you want for dinner?"
"I don't know. What do you want?"
"I don't know."
Tools under $25 to improve maintenance
Kneepad
Graph pads
Fold-out two-wheeler
Lock-out, tag-out devices
Pilot's kneeboard
Custom toolkits for frequent tasks
Foam roller
Reach extender
Zip ties (cable ties)
Carabiners
It is not wasteful to duplicate tools
 If it's the difference between doing the maintenance and not
 If it saves time on...
Play hurt sometimes
Figure out what is adding extra strain,
then eliminate it
Caring for assets makes you a:
 Guardian
 Conservator
 Trustee
 Custodian
 Steward
 Fiduciary
"Cheap" isn't always cheap
"Cheap" up-front
may cost you a fortune
Doing maintenance right saves you grief
AVOID PAIN!
Good maintenance saves customers money
PLEASE THE PEOPLE!
First-Half Summary
 Do the right maintenance for the right equipment
 Fix-on-failure, scheduled, preventive, predictive
...
References:
 Cost of anti-terrorism:
 http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2013/09/11/u-s-spends-over-16-billion-annuall...
PUMP TROUBLESHOOTING
Brian Gongol
DJ Gongol & Associates, Inc.
January 27, 2016
NWOD Snowball Conference
Kearney, Nebraska
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (as Sherlock Holmes)
"Once you eliminate the impossible,
whatever remains, no matter how improbable...
All pump problems are either mechanical...
...or hydraulic
Secondarily, they are either internal...
...or external to the pump
How to tell a mechanical problem
Take away the water
How to tell a hydraulic problem
Take measurements
Mechanical problems - internal to the pump
Bearings
Seals
Packing
Tightness of fit
Suction flap valves
Debris
Internal rubbing
Friction
Mechanical problems - external to the pump
Motors
Controls
Alignment
Balance
Transmission
Belts
Sheaves
Couplings
Valves (throttling)
Valves (isolation)
Valves (air-release)
Piping
Rotation
Jay-Z had 99 problems
We've come up with about 50...and this is halftime
Hydraulic problems - internal to the pump
Recirculation
Clearances
Wearplate wear
Wear ring wear
Volute wear
Impeller wear
In at least three flavors...
Chemical attack
Abrasion
Cavitation*
Cavitation damage happens inside the pump...
but it's almost always caused outside the pump
Hydraulic problems - external to the pump
Suction side or discharge side
The two flavors of external hydraulic issues
Hydraulic problems - external - suction
NPSH
NPSHa (net) = Atmospheric pressure
- vapor pressure
- safety factor
- total dynamic suction lift
- NPSHr for the pump
Atmospheric pressure
Heat/vapor pressure
Air entrainment
Air in high spot
Turbulence
Vortexing
Minimum submergence
Plugged suction
Debris
Never underestimate what a storm can do
...and deposit in your wetwells
Horizontal runs
Valves
Leaks
Not water getting out,
but air getting in
Changes to fluid properties
For instance...
Gases in solution
Surfactants
Viscosity
Specific gravity
Froth/foam/bubbles
Hydraulic problems - external - discharge
Valves
Leaks/breaks
Sediment
Debris
Changes to effective pipe diameter
Caused by...
Air
Ice
Corrosion
Scaling
Buildup
Tools to assist in your investigation
Impeller condition: Excess wear
Impeller condition: Suction cavitation
Impeller condition: Discharge cavitation
Shaft breakage
Seal failure
Strange or unwelcome noises
Strange or unwelcome noises
Suction cavitation
Discharge cavitation
Surges
The scream
Use all of your available senses (minus taste)
Record performance
Keep pump curves handy
Gauge readings make a huge difference
Gauge readings make a huge difference
Look in the direction of change
Was the change gradual or abrupt?
Some are dead give...
Gauge case studies
Gauge case studies
 The prime that took forever
Gauge case studies
Gauge case studies
 The prime that took forever
 The hole in the suction line
Gauge case studies
Gauge case studies
 The prime that took forever
 The hole in the suction line
 The plugged suction
Gauge case studies
Gauge case studies
 The prime that took forever
 The hole in the suction line
 The plugged suction
 The forcemain fail...
Gauge case studies
Gauge case studies
 The prime that took forever
 The hole in the suction line
 The plugged suction
 The forcemain fail...
Gauge case studies
Gauge case studies
 The prime that took forever
 The hole in the suction line
 The plugged suction
 The forcemain fail...
Gauge case studies
Gauge case studies
 The prime that took forever
 The hole in the suction line
 The plugged suction
 The forcemain fail...
Gauge case studies
Always divide and conquer
Questions?
 Thank you for coming!
Thank you for your attention!
 Contact us anytime with
questions
 Brian Gongol
 DJ Gongol & Associates
 515-223-4144
...
References:
 Photo: Mechanic tightening nut (public domain)
 http://loc.gov/pictures/resource/fsac.1a35263/
 All other ...
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Pump Maintenance and Troubleshooting

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An introductory/intermediate-level look at pump maintenance strategies, tips, and insights, as well as an extensive review of pump troubleshooting options

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Pump Maintenance and Troubleshooting

  1. 1. PUMP MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLESHOOTING Brian Gongol DJ Gongol & Associates, Inc. January 27, 2016 NWOD Snowball Conference Kearney, Nebraska
  2. 2. Not all maintenance is worth doing!
  3. 3. Maintenance is about one thing Getting the full life-cycle value from a product
  4. 4. Extending life means actively saving money
  5. 5. Think of operational savings in pretax dollars $1.25 to $1.33 in pretax income to the ordinary taxpayer
  6. 6. So let's save some money!
  7. 7. Types of maintenance  Fix on failure  Scheduled  Preventive  Predictive
  8. 8. Each approach has its place
  9. 9. Fix on failure When it's cheap, simple, and in-stock, like a pen
  10. 10. Scheduled maintenance When there is lots of data from prior experience
  11. 11. Preventive maintenance When a failure puts you at serious risk of long-term downtime
  12. 12. Predictive maintenance When the signals of trouble are well-known and surveillance is cheap
  13. 13. In the context of your health...
  14. 14. Fix on failure Bandage on a papercut
  15. 15. Scheduled maintenance Getting your annual physical (prostate exams, colonoscopies, cholesterol tests...)
  16. 16. Preventive maintenance Regular exercise
  17. 17. Predictive maintenance  Blood pressure checks  Body-composition bathroom scales  Blood-sugar tests
  18. 18. We rely too heavily on fix-on-failure (Not a recommended maintenance strategy.)
  19. 19. You would never fly Fix-On-Failure Airlines
  20. 20. Avoid the curse of Shary Bobbins
  21. 21. Always put safety first
  22. 22. You are the most valuable piece of equipment
  23. 23. Lock out, tag out
  24. 24. Check for gases
  25. 25. Seriously. Check for gases.
  26. 26. Prevent slips, trips, and falls Carpet pattern designed as if to maximize disorientation CenturyLink Center, Omaha
  27. 27. Prevent muscle strain
  28. 28. Keep safety equipment in good repair  Guards  Belts  Sensors  Handrails
  29. 29. Measurement means control
  30. 30. Everyone knows quantitative measurements
  31. 31. Pump run times
  32. 32. Energy consumption
  33. 33. Flows
  34. 34. Pressure readings
  35. 35. Oil temperatures
  36. 36. Motor casing temperatures
  37. 37. But qualitative measurements matter, too
  38. 38. Vibration
  39. 39. Smells/scents/odors
  40. 40. Smells/scents/odors  bitter  burnt  citrusy  fermented  fishy  fresh  fruity  grassy  hot  moldy  musty  oily  oppressive  organic  pungent  rotten  sharp  smoky  sour  sulfuric  sweet
  41. 41. Sounds
  42. 42. Sounds  bassy  buzz  chirp  clack  clap  click  crescendo  dissonant  echo  grind  growl  harmonic  hum  knock  loud  muffled  piercing  ping  quiet  rattle  rhythmic  ringing  rumble  screech  sharp  squeak  squeal  staccato  tap  whinny  whoosh
  43. 43. Why take measurements? And keep qualitative records?
  44. 44. From fix-on-failure to anticipation Making the change means collecting and using data
  45. 45. Not appropriate to everything
  46. 46. Litmus test If downtime would wake you in the middle of the night and a replacement isn't on your own shelf, use some kind of predictive/preventive measurement
  47. 47. Make it easy to measure and record
  48. 48. Make it easy to review performance
  49. 49. Take the time to review
  50. 50. I-35W: Calculations were "too much work"
  51. 51. Take records straight to a tablet or netbook  Eliminates handwriting errors  Eliminates copying errors  Promotes rapid visualization
  52. 52. Prices are so low, it's highly justifiable
  53. 53. Use free resources
  54. 54. E-mail
  55. 55. Calendars
  56. 56. Charts and task lists
  57. 57. 7x7
  58. 58. Make them easy to digest at a glance
  59. 59. People like to keep up unbroken chains
  60. 60. "X" days without a safety incident
  61. 61. Know your indicators  Problem indicators  Smoke from under the hood  Planned indicators  Squeaking brakes
  62. 62. Conduct a post-mortem on failures and incidents  What did it cost you?  What signals were missed?
  63. 63. Primary predictive-maintenance indicators  Temperatures  Oil/lubricant conditions  Ultrasonic analysis  Vibration  Performance trends
  64. 64. Nobody wants to do the dirtiest job
  65. 65. Create a culture that encourages maintenance Starting with ownership of the process
  66. 66. Wax/paint/clean the equipment
  67. 67. Broken window effect
  68. 68. A baseline for what's right... ...makes it easier to see when something's wrong
  69. 69. A hidden payback When you practice regular maintenance, you get to know the equipment on an expert level Expert-level understanding makes trouble resolution much faster
  70. 70. What you have in common with machines Some of the things that make your life more pleasant help equipment, too
  71. 71. Winter heating Proper heating in winter prevents freezing
  72. 72. Summer cooling Well-ventilated motors are more reliable and more efficient
  73. 73. Turn better maintenance into a game
  74. 74. Rival departments (or shifts)
  75. 75. Rival communities
  76. 76. Leverage your efforts & improve motivation Friendly rivalries with something on the line (pride or a small wager) raise the level of performance all around
  77. 77. Make it a measurable goal with a small wager Doughnuts? Lunch? A round of beers?
  78. 78. Buddy system aids information-sharing
  79. 79. Create your own "peer group" Valuable for comparisons in reports
  80. 80. If you're doing well The peer group helps you take credit
  81. 81. If you're doing badly Peer pressure can motivate improvement
  82. 82. If you need more resources The peer group helps you make the case
  83. 83. Reward good maintenance ideas Multi-thousand-dollar ideas go un-shared because people don't think they'll be rewarded
  84. 84. Rewards beget buy-in "You can achieve amazing progress if you set a clear goal and find a measure that will drive progress toward that goal in a feedback loop." - Bill Gates
  85. 85. Use mental tricks to help yourself Make maintenance automatic
  86. 86. Conserve mental energy Don't make more choices than necessary
  87. 87. Color-coded tools
  88. 88. Opt-in versus opt-out  When the default option is participation, one-third of people stick with retirement plans who wouldn't have signed up on their own
  89. 89. Add a third choice to make
  90. 90. Add a third choice to make
  91. 91. Batches of three Just clustering tasks and choices in groups of three reduces the mental tax of decision-making
  92. 92. Conserve mental energy for what matters "What do you want for dinner?" "I don't know. What do you want?" "I don't know."
  93. 93. Tools under $25 to improve maintenance
  94. 94. Kneepad
  95. 95. Graph pads
  96. 96. Fold-out two-wheeler
  97. 97. Lock-out, tag-out devices
  98. 98. Pilot's kneeboard
  99. 99. Custom toolkits for frequent tasks
  100. 100. Foam roller
  101. 101. Reach extender
  102. 102. Zip ties (cable ties)
  103. 103. Carabiners
  104. 104. It is not wasteful to duplicate tools  If it's the difference between doing the maintenance and not  If it saves time on a quick payback period
  105. 105. Play hurt sometimes Figure out what is adding extra strain, then eliminate it
  106. 106. Caring for assets makes you a:  Guardian  Conservator  Trustee  Custodian  Steward  Fiduciary
  107. 107. "Cheap" isn't always cheap "Cheap" up-front may cost you a fortune
  108. 108. Doing maintenance right saves you grief AVOID PAIN!
  109. 109. Good maintenance saves customers money PLEASE THE PEOPLE!
  110. 110. First-Half Summary  Do the right maintenance for the right equipment  Fix-on-failure, scheduled, preventive, predictive  Use your brain as often as your hands  Place a real value on maintenance and communicate it
  111. 111. References:  Cost of anti-terrorism:  http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2013/09/11/u-s-spends-over-16-billion-annually-on-counter- terrorism/  Cost of deferred maintenance:  http://www.infrastructurereportcard.org/news/  Retirement opt-in participation:  http://www.nber.org/bah/summer06/w12009.html  Airport security photo (public domain):  https://twitter.com/TSAMedia_RossF/status/375424954600157185/photo/1  I-35W "too much work":  http://www.startribune.com/local/minneapolis/52124637.html  I-35W photo (public domain):  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:I35W_Collapse_-_Day_4_-_Operations_%26_Scene_(95).jpg  Osama bin Laden screen capture:  http://www.fbi.gov/wanted/topten/usama-bin-laden  Aircraft boneyard photo (public domain):  http://research.archives.gov/description/6505216  All other photos and illustrations are original work by Brian Gongol. Copyright and all other rights are reserved.
  112. 112. PUMP TROUBLESHOOTING Brian Gongol DJ Gongol & Associates, Inc. January 27, 2016 NWOD Snowball Conference Kearney, Nebraska
  113. 113. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (as Sherlock Holmes) "Once you eliminate the impossible, whatever remains, no matter how improbable, must be the truth."
  114. 114. All pump problems are either mechanical...
  115. 115. ...or hydraulic
  116. 116. Secondarily, they are either internal...
  117. 117. ...or external to the pump
  118. 118. How to tell a mechanical problem Take away the water
  119. 119. How to tell a hydraulic problem Take measurements
  120. 120. Mechanical problems - internal to the pump
  121. 121. Bearings
  122. 122. Seals
  123. 123. Packing
  124. 124. Tightness of fit
  125. 125. Suction flap valves
  126. 126. Debris
  127. 127. Internal rubbing
  128. 128. Friction
  129. 129. Mechanical problems - external to the pump
  130. 130. Motors
  131. 131. Controls
  132. 132. Alignment
  133. 133. Balance
  134. 134. Transmission
  135. 135. Belts
  136. 136. Sheaves
  137. 137. Couplings
  138. 138. Valves (throttling)
  139. 139. Valves (isolation)
  140. 140. Valves (air-release)
  141. 141. Piping
  142. 142. Rotation
  143. 143. Jay-Z had 99 problems We've come up with about 50...and this is halftime
  144. 144. Hydraulic problems - internal to the pump
  145. 145. Recirculation
  146. 146. Clearances
  147. 147. Wearplate wear
  148. 148. Wear ring wear
  149. 149. Volute wear
  150. 150. Impeller wear In at least three flavors...
  151. 151. Chemical attack
  152. 152. Abrasion
  153. 153. Cavitation* Cavitation damage happens inside the pump... but it's almost always caused outside the pump
  154. 154. Hydraulic problems - external to the pump
  155. 155. Suction side or discharge side The two flavors of external hydraulic issues
  156. 156. Hydraulic problems - external - suction
  157. 157. NPSH NPSHa (net) = Atmospheric pressure - vapor pressure - safety factor - total dynamic suction lift - NPSHr for the pump
  158. 158. Atmospheric pressure
  159. 159. Heat/vapor pressure
  160. 160. Air entrainment
  161. 161. Air in high spot
  162. 162. Turbulence
  163. 163. Vortexing
  164. 164. Minimum submergence
  165. 165. Plugged suction
  166. 166. Debris Never underestimate what a storm can do ...and deposit in your wetwells
  167. 167. Horizontal runs
  168. 168. Valves
  169. 169. Leaks Not water getting out, but air getting in
  170. 170. Changes to fluid properties For instance...
  171. 171. Gases in solution
  172. 172. Surfactants
  173. 173. Viscosity
  174. 174. Specific gravity
  175. 175. Froth/foam/bubbles
  176. 176. Hydraulic problems - external - discharge
  177. 177. Valves
  178. 178. Leaks/breaks
  179. 179. Sediment
  180. 180. Debris
  181. 181. Changes to effective pipe diameter Caused by...
  182. 182. Air
  183. 183. Ice
  184. 184. Corrosion
  185. 185. Scaling
  186. 186. Buildup
  187. 187. Tools to assist in your investigation
  188. 188. Impeller condition: Excess wear
  189. 189. Impeller condition: Suction cavitation
  190. 190. Impeller condition: Discharge cavitation
  191. 191. Shaft breakage
  192. 192. Seal failure
  193. 193. Strange or unwelcome noises
  194. 194. Strange or unwelcome noises Suction cavitation Discharge cavitation Surges The scream
  195. 195. Use all of your available senses (minus taste)
  196. 196. Record performance
  197. 197. Keep pump curves handy
  198. 198. Gauge readings make a huge difference
  199. 199. Gauge readings make a huge difference Look in the direction of change Was the change gradual or abrupt? Some are dead giveaways, others just point in the right direction
  200. 200. Gauge case studies
  201. 201. Gauge case studies  The prime that took forever
  202. 202. Gauge case studies
  203. 203. Gauge case studies  The prime that took forever  The hole in the suction line
  204. 204. Gauge case studies
  205. 205. Gauge case studies  The prime that took forever  The hole in the suction line  The plugged suction
  206. 206. Gauge case studies
  207. 207. Gauge case studies  The prime that took forever  The hole in the suction line  The plugged suction  The forcemain failure
  208. 208. Gauge case studies
  209. 209. Gauge case studies  The prime that took forever  The hole in the suction line  The plugged suction  The forcemain failure  The sedimentation inclination
  210. 210. Gauge case studies
  211. 211. Gauge case studies  The prime that took forever  The hole in the suction line  The plugged suction  The forcemain failure  The sedimentation inclination  The bubble, bubble, toil, and trouble
  212. 212. Gauge case studies
  213. 213. Gauge case studies  The prime that took forever  The hole in the suction line  The plugged suction  The forcemain failure  The sedimentation inclination  The bubble, bubble, toil, and trouble  The surge-and-slam
  214. 214. Gauge case studies
  215. 215. Always divide and conquer
  216. 216. Questions?  Thank you for coming!
  217. 217. Thank you for your attention!  Contact us anytime with questions  Brian Gongol  DJ Gongol & Associates  515-223-4144  info@djgongol.com
  218. 218. References:  Photo: Mechanic tightening nut (public domain)  http://loc.gov/pictures/resource/fsac.1a35263/  All other photos are original work by and copyright reserved to Brian Gongol

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