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Maintenance: How not to hate it

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Maintenance usually doesn't get a lot of attention, and the people who do it rarely get the respect they deserve. In public works, that's a costly error in the way we think and do business. In this presentation, we offer (1) a way to conceptualize maintenance so that it's done efficiently, (2) practical ideas for making maintenance easier, and (3) guidelines for communicating maintenance needs to the powers that be.

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Maintenance: How not to hate it

  1. 1. MAINTENANCE: HOW TO NOT HATE IT Brian Gongol DJ Gongol & Associates, Inc. April 7, 2017 Iowa WEA Region IV Spring Meeting Atlantic, Iowa
  2. 2. Terrorism is scary.
  3. 3. We spend massive sums on detection  NSA  CIA  TSA  FBI  Homeland Security  Local law enforcement
  4. 4. Cameras
  5. 5. Sensors  Radiation  X-ray  Biological weapons  Full-body scanners
  6. 6. The detection doesn't always work Resulting in failures that grip the world's attention
  7. 7. Detection failures  1993 WTC bombing  Khobar Towers bombing  9/11  Shoe bomber  Underwear bomber  Boston Marathon bombing  Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 (?)
  8. 8. More attention leads to more surveillance Even though the events are incredibly rare
  9. 9. Story-tellers magnify the story Reporters, pundits, politicians, and others
  10. 10. ...until we spend billions without thinking twice $16.6 billion a year
  11. 11. What's a lot scarier? Deferred maintenance.
  12. 12. Scarier, really? Not to diminish the tragedies that have occurred, but they are extremely low-probability events. Your individual chances of being affected are indistinguishable from zero. But our choices as a society mean that infrastructure failures are certain to occur, with extremely widespread impact, and can range from inconveniences to calamities.
  13. 13. Truth time It should terrify us to think that we choose to put ourselves at risk solely due to a lack of willpower to take responsibility for an entirely preventable condition
  14. 14. $3.6 trillion in deferred maintenance  Anti-terrorism:  $16.6 billion spent yearly  $50 per person  Deferred maintenance:  $3,600.0 billion needed  $11,000 per person
  15. 15. That's $3,600 billion  Or about 217 years of anti-terrorism funding
  16. 16. Nobody talks about it, though.
  17. 17. A simple question and a troubling answer Who has been asked to defer maintenance because of a budget shortfall?
  18. 18. A simple question and a troubling answer Who has been asked to accelerate maintenance to make up for what has been deferred?
  19. 19. That gap you're seeing We treat "maintenance" like a bank account from which we only ever borrow
  20. 20. Maintenance means just holding the line What we should really advocate is continuous improvement
  21. 21. You're in an unenviable position Having to address an expensive problem with under-funded resources
  22. 22. A three-fold strategy for easier maintenance
  23. 23. 1. Fix our concept of maintenance It can't always be an emergency
  24. 24. 2. Make practical maintenance easier
  25. 25. 3. Communicate the problem effectively
  26. 26. CONCEPT
  27. 27. Even nature has maintenance cycles
  28. 28. Small forest fires are natural
  29. 29. Big fires result from human intervention
  30. 30. Not all maintenance is worth doing!
  31. 31. Maintenance is about one thing Getting the full life-cycle value from a product
  32. 32. Extending life means actively saving money
  33. 33. Think of operational savings in pretax dollars $1.25 to $1.33 in pretax income to the ordinary taxpayer
  34. 34. So let's save some money!
  35. 35. Types of maintenance  Fix on failure  Scheduled  Preventive  Predictive
  36. 36. Each approach has its place But it's up to you to figure out which way to go
  37. 37. Fix on failure When it's cheap, simple, and in-stock, like a pen
  38. 38. Scheduled maintenance When there is lots of data from prior experience
  39. 39. Preventive maintenance When a failure puts you at serious risk of long-term downtime
  40. 40. Predictive maintenance When the signals of trouble are well-known and surveillance is cheap
  41. 41. In the context of your health...
  42. 42. Fix on failure Bandage on a papercut
  43. 43. Scheduled maintenance Getting your annual physical (prostate exams, colonoscopies, cholesterol tests...)
  44. 44. Preventive maintenance Regular exercise
  45. 45. Predictive maintenance  Blood pressure checks  Body-composition bathroom scales  Blood-sugar tests
  46. 46. We rely too heavily on fix-on-failure (Not a recommended maintenance strategy.)
  47. 47. You would never fly Fix-On-Failure Airlines
  48. 48. Now that we get the concept...
  49. 49. PRACTICE
  50. 50. Avoid the curse of Shary Bobbins
  51. 51. Always put safety first
  52. 52. You are the most valuable piece of equipment
  53. 53. Lock out, tag out
  54. 54. Check for gases
  55. 55. Seriously. Check for gases.
  56. 56. Prevent slips, trips, and falls Carpet pattern designed as if to maximize disorientation CenturyLink Center, Omaha
  57. 57. Prevent muscle strain
  58. 58. Keep safety equipment in good repair  Guards  Belts  Sensors  Handrails
  59. 59. Measurement means control
  60. 60. Everyone knows quantitative measurements
  61. 61. Pump run times
  62. 62. Energy consumption
  63. 63. Flows
  64. 64. Pressure readings
  65. 65. Oil temperatures
  66. 66. Motor casing temperatures
  67. 67. But qualitative measurements matter, too
  68. 68. Vibration
  69. 69. Smells/scents/odors
  70. 70. Smells/scents/odors  bitter  burnt  citrusy  fermented  fishy  fresh  fruity  grassy  hot  moldy  musty  oily  oppressive  organic  pungent  rotten  sharp  smoky  sour  sulfuric  sweet
  71. 71. Sounds
  72. 72. Sounds  bassy  buzz  chirp  clack  clap  click  crescendo  dissonant  echo  grind  growl  harmonic  hum  knock  loud  muffled  piercing  ping  quiet  rattle  rhythmic  ringing  rumble  screech  sharp  squeak  squeal  staccato  tap  whinny  whoosh
  73. 73. Why take measurements? And keep qualitative records?
  74. 74. From fix-on-failure to anticipation Making the change means collecting and using data
  75. 75. Not appropriate to everything
  76. 76. Litmus test If downtime would wake you in the middle of the night and a replacement isn't on your own shelf, use some kind of predictive/preventive measurement
  77. 77. Make it easy to measure and record
  78. 78. Make it easy to review performance
  79. 79. Take the time to review
  80. 80. I-35W: Calculations were "too much work"
  81. 81. Take records straight to a tablet or netbook  Eliminates handwriting errors  Eliminates copying errors  Promotes rapid visualization
  82. 82. Prices are so low, it's highly justifiable
  83. 83. Use free resources
  84. 84. E-mail
  85. 85. Calendars
  86. 86. Charts, checklists, and task lists
  87. 87. Correction: GOOD checklists
  88. 88. Follow the 7x7 rule
  89. 89. Make it comprehensible in one look
  90. 90. Make them easy to digest at a glance
  91. 91. People like to keep up unbroken chains
  92. 92. "X" days without a safety incident
  93. 93. Know your indicators  Problem indicators  Smoke from under the hood  Planned indicators  Squeaking brakes
  94. 94. Conduct a post-mortem on failures and incidents  What did it cost you?  What signals were missed?
  95. 95. Primary predictive-maintenance indicators  Temperatures  Oil/lubricant conditions  Ultrasonic analysis  Vibration  Performance trends
  96. 96. Nobody wants to do the dirtiest job
  97. 97. Create a culture that encourages maintenance Starting with ownership of the process
  98. 98. Wax/paint/clean the equipment
  99. 99. Broken window effect
  100. 100. A baseline for what's right... ...makes it easier to see when something's wrong
  101. 101. A hidden payback When you practice regular maintenance, you get to know the equipment on an expert level Expert-level understanding makes trouble resolution much faster
  102. 102. What you have in common with machines Some of the things that make your life more pleasant help equipment, too
  103. 103. Winter heating Proper heating in winter prevents freezing
  104. 104. Summer cooling Well-ventilated motors are more reliable and more efficient
  105. 105. Turn better maintenance into a game
  106. 106. Rival departments (or shifts)
  107. 107. Rival communities
  108. 108. Leverage your efforts & improve motivation Friendly rivalries with something on the line (pride or a small wager) raise the level of performance all around
  109. 109. Make it a measurable goal with a small wager Doughnuts? Lunch? A round of beers?
  110. 110. Buddy system aids information-sharing
  111. 111. Create your own "peer group" Valuable for comparisons in reports
  112. 112. If you're doing well The peer group helps you take credit
  113. 113. If you're doing badly Peer pressure can motivate improvement
  114. 114. If you need more resources The peer group helps you make the case
  115. 115. Reward good maintenance ideas Multi-thousand-dollar ideas go un-shared because people don't think they'll be rewarded
  116. 116. Rewards beget buy-in "You can achieve amazing progress if you set a clear goal and find a measure that will drive progress toward that goal in a feedback loop." - Bill Gates
  117. 117. Use mental tricks to help yourself Make maintenance automatic
  118. 118. Conserve mental energy Don't make more choices than necessary
  119. 119. Color-coded tools
  120. 120. Opt-in versus opt-out  When the default option is participation, one-third of people stick with retirement plans who wouldn't have signed up on their own
  121. 121. Add a third choice to make
  122. 122. Add a third choice to make
  123. 123. Batches of three Just clustering tasks and choices in groups of three reduces the mental tax of decision-making
  124. 124. Conserve mental energy for what matters "What do you want for dinner?" "I don't know. What do you want?" "I don't know."
  125. 125. Tools under $25 to improve maintenance
  126. 126. Kneepad
  127. 127. Graph pads
  128. 128. Fold-out two-wheeler
  129. 129. Lock-out, tag-out devices
  130. 130. Pilot's kneeboard
  131. 131. Custom toolkits for frequent tasks
  132. 132. Foam roller
  133. 133. Reach extender
  134. 134. Zip ties (cable ties)
  135. 135. Carabiners
  136. 136. It is not wasteful to duplicate tools  If it's the difference between doing the maintenance and not  If it saves time on a quick payback period
  137. 137. Play hurt sometimes Figure out what is adding extra strain, then eliminate it
  138. 138. Concept and practice: Done. Now...
  139. 139. COMMUNICATION
  140. 140. Get the resources you need
  141. 141. Explaining to people who don't do maintenance Maybe not even at home
  142. 142. Give them three forecasts Best case, worst case, and most likely (Remember: People default to the middle)
  143. 143. We have to engage people who think:  Infrastructure happens by magic  The work gets done by people who are beneath them
  144. 144. Professionals speak up for themselves  CPAs funding "Feed the Pig" commercials  Medical journals in the news  Trial lawyers making campaign contributions
  145. 145. We can't be timid about real needs! Worn-out infrastructure is no good for the people actually doing the work, and it does no service to customers
  146. 146. Reluctant? Why? Too time-consuming? Too much effort? No motivation?
  147. 147. Just because we don't do it now... ...doesn't mean it goes away. It usually just gets worse.
  148. 148. If time is short... Can a better strategy save time?
  149. 149. If time is short... Are you valuing the opportunity cost of your time?
  150. 150. If it requires too much effort... Are we just hoping to run out the clock and avoid the eventual catastrophic failure?
  151. 151. If you're unmotivated... Think about saving yourself a 2 a.m. weekend call
  152. 152. If it's external, examine why  Not enough staff or hours in the day?  Not enough funding?  No support from "on high"?
  153. 153. Just because it isn't done ...doesn't mean it doesn't have to be done
  154. 154. Troubles happen  Potholes  Bridge collapses (I-35W)  Levee failures (Hamburg)  Main breaks  Sewer backups
  155. 155. People see (and feel) potholes
  156. 156. Water-related utilities are relatively invisible We have to speak up about the invisible "potholes" in water and sewer systems
  157. 157. Cost deferral isn't cost prevention
  158. 158. Cost deferral is usually cost compounding
  159. 159. If we don't communicate what we need ...we shouldn't be surprised if we don't get it.
  160. 160. You have to tell them what you need
  161. 161. Add a little bit of "Why?" Make it a "Why" that matters to the decision-maker
  162. 162. Words matter "Honey Wagon"
  163. 163. Euphemisms don't really help But we must consider real perceptions and their consequences
  164. 164. Since 1989, people have watched
  165. 165. ...which is a more compelling title than
  166. 166. Words really do matter The same food waste is perceived differently when it moves from the garbage can to the compost bin
  167. 167. Words really do matter Consider the magical transformation from sludge to biosolids
  168. 168. Honest improvements to "Maintenance"  Asset manager  Capital-preservation specialist  Incident-prevention supervisor  Public-health technician  Service reliability agent
  169. 169. Alternative titles to avoid  Museum curator  Crisis-response team  Equipment babysitter
  170. 170. People rarely ask what maintenance will cost Or how much good maintenance changes the life expectancy
  171. 171. Caring for assets makes you a:  Guardian  Conservator  Trustee  Custodian  Steward  Fiduciary
  172. 172. "Cheap" isn't always cheap "Cheap" up-front may cost you a fortune
  173. 173. Doing maintenance right saves you grief AVOID PAIN!
  174. 174. Good maintenance saves customers money PLEASE THE PEOPLE!
  175. 175. Summary:  Do the right maintenance for the right equipment  Fix-on-failure, scheduled, preventive, predictive  Use your brain as often as your hands  Place a real value on maintenance and communicate it
  176. 176. Questions?  Thank you for coming!  Brian Gongol  DJ Gongol & Associates  515-223-4144  info@djgongol.com
  177. 177. References:  Cost of anti-terrorism:  http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2013/09/11/u-s-spends-over-16-billion-annually-on-counter- terrorism/  Cost of deferred maintenance:  http://www.infrastructurereportcard.org/news/  Retirement opt-in participation:  http://www.nber.org/bah/summer06/w12009.html  Airport security photo (public domain):  https://twitter.com/TSAMedia_RossF/status/375424954600157185/photo/1  I-35W "too much work":  http://www.startribune.com/local/minneapolis/52124637.html  I-35W photo (public domain):  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:I35W_Collapse_-_Day_4_-_Operations_%26_Scene_(95).jpg  Osama bin Laden screen capture:  http://www.fbi.gov/wanted/topten/usama-bin-laden  Aircraft boneyard photo (public domain):  http://research.archives.gov/description/6505216  All other photos and illustrations are original work by Brian Gongol. Copyright and all other rights are reserved.

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