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Burp Proudly: The Importance of Air Valves

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The importance and role of air valves in a force main

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Burp Proudly: The Importance of Air Valves

  1. 1. BURP PROUDLY: The Importance of Air Valves Brian Gongol DJ Gongol & Associates, Inc. March 30, 2016 Iowa WEA Region 5 Conference Huxley, Iowa
  2. 2. Let's start with a beer keg
  3. 3. If you pump a few times, you add pressure
  4. 4. Pumping too much creates foamy beer
  5. 5. Beer is relatively incompressible
  6. 6. Releasing a little volume eases lots of pressure
  7. 7. Water in a pressurized system: Same behavior
  8. 8. Not zero like a solid (steel or concrete)
  9. 9. But close
  10. 10. Squirt guns and belly flops prove it
  11. 11. Everyone knows two ways you can get gas
  12. 12. 1. Swallowing too much air
  13. 13. 2. Eating something that generates gas
  14. 14. There are two ways to get rid of it
  15. 15. Having gas in your system is unpleasant
  16. 16. Gas stretches your elastic innards
  17. 17. Wastewater systems do not have the same elasticity
  18. 18. When gas collects, it doesn't have anywhere to go
  19. 19. But gas inside a force main is just as real as the gas you get from eating a burrito
  20. 20. Force mains are not elastic
  21. 21. Pressure inside does two things
  22. 22. 1. Displaces water that should be flowing through
  23. 23. 2. Places pressure on pipes that can cause damage
  24. 24. This is why we use air-release valves
  25. 25. [ ENTER: THE WIRE HANGER ]
  26. 26. But unlike your digestive tract, hard pipes have to stay full of something at all times
  27. 27. In addition to releasing air, we have to break vacuums as well
  28. 28. Four different types of valves need to be considered
  29. 29. 1. Air-release
  30. 30. [ AIR-RELEASE VIDEO ]
  31. 31. 2. Vacuum-breaker
  32. 32. [ VACUUM-BREAKER VIDEO ]
  33. 33. 3. Air-vac
  34. 34. 4. Combination air valves
  35. 35. [ COMBINATION AIR VALVE VIDEO ]
  36. 36. Where these are located
  37. 37. Typically some kind of air release at the pump site
  38. 38. Needed for priming
  39. 39. Frequently a site of air capture
  40. 40. Air-release at the highest point is not enough
  41. 41. Air release is needed at all local high points
  42. 42. Also recommended on long stretches of pipe rise
  43. 43. Vacuum-breakers typically needed at the same points
  44. 44. Weight of a column of water  4" diameter, 500' long  43.55 cubic feet  325.75 gallons
  45. 45. At 8.3 lbs per gallon: 2700 lbs. (a Honda Civic)
  46. 46. For big exhaust, air-vac valves may be enough
  47. 47. But if mains needs to "burp", get combination valves
  48. 48. Sizing is a little bit of black magic, but not too much
  49. 49. When in doubt, go big
  50. 50. Filling a pipeline/force main
  51. 51. Filling a pipeline/force main
  52. 52. Filling a pipeline/force main
  53. 53. Filling a pipeline/force main
  54. 54. Filling a pipeline/force main
  55. 55. Filling a pipeline/force main
  56. 56. Filling a pipeline/force main
  57. 57. Filling a pipeline/force main
  58. 58. Filling a pipeline/force main
  59. 59. Filling a pipeline/force main
  60. 60. Filling a pipeline/force main
  61. 61. Filling a pipeline/force main
  62. 62. Filling a pipeline/force main
  63. 63. Breaking a vacuum
  64. 64. Breaking a vacuum
  65. 65. Breaking a vacuum
  66. 66. Breaking a vacuum - refilling
  67. 67. Air valves are not shock absorbers, too
  68. 68. Water is not like air in a storm door cushion
  69. 69. But also unlike pushing on a pool cue
  70. 70. Energy is transmitted quickly but not instantly
  71. 71. Energy is conducted as a wave
  72. 72. Air valves and surge valves are complementary
  73. 73. Air is vastly more compressible than water
  74. 74. Water needs surge control to protect pipes
  75. 75. Surge is like a train starting or stopping
  76. 76. Energy transmits through couplers
  77. 77. Surge in a filled force main
  78. 78. Surge in a filled force main
  79. 79. Surge in a filled force main
  80. 80. Surge in a filled force main
  81. 81. Surge in a filled force main
  82. 82. Surge in a filled force main
  83. 83. Surge in a filled force main
  84. 84. Surge in a filled force main
  85. 85. Surge in a filled force main
  86. 86. Surge in a filled force main
  87. 87. Surge in a filled force main
  88. 88. Surge in a filled force main
  89. 89. Surge in a filled force main
  90. 90. Surge in a filled force main
  91. 91. Surge in a filled force main
  92. 92. Surge in a filled force main
  93. 93. Surge in a filled force main
  94. 94. Surge in a filled force main
  95. 95. Surge in a filled force main
  96. 96. Surge in a filled force main
  97. 97. Surge in a filled force main
  98. 98. Surge in a filled force main
  99. 99. Surge in a filled force main
  100. 100. Surge in a filled force main
  101. 101. Surge in a filled force main
  102. 102. Surge in a filled force main
  103. 103. Don't make a bad situation worse
  104. 104. Low point main break - with vac breakers
  105. 105. Low point main break - with vac breakers
  106. 106. Low point main break - with vac breakers
  107. 107. Low point main break - with vac breakers
  108. 108. Low point main break - with vac breakers
  109. 109. Low point main break - with vac breakers
  110. 110. Low point main break without vac breakers
  111. 111. Low point main break without vac breakers
  112. 112. Low point main break without vac breakers
  113. 113. Low point main break without vac breakers
  114. 114. Low point main break without vac breakers
  115. 115. Low point main break without vac breakers
  116. 116. Low point main break without vac breakers
  117. 117. Low point main break without vac breakers
  118. 118. Low point main break without vac breakers
  119. 119. All the sizing in the world is useless if you don't maintain
  120. 120. Backflushing
  121. 121. [ BACKFLUSHING VIDEO ]
  122. 122. Risks damaging parts
  123. 123. May not remove buildup
  124. 124. Could just temporarily move the clog
  125. 125. Alternative: Wiping and scrubbing
  126. 126. [ CLEANING VIDEO ]
  127. 127. Isolation is important
  128. 128. Knife gate valves for isolation
  129. 129. Plug valves for isolation
  130. 130. Valves aren't just an accessory or a "want"
  131. 131. Proper valving is essential to the proper operation of a force main
  132. 132. Slam is the train sliding back downhill
  133. 133. Vacuum-breaking upon pressure drop
  134. 134. Air in solution in water: About 2%
  135. 135. Air restricts pipe diameter
  136. 136. Can be significant
  137. 137. Air pockets will build
  138. 138. Imagine trapping a tough balloon in the pipe
  139. 139. Lots of compression possible...
  140. 140. ...but dangerous high pressure results
  141. 141. Upsurge and downsurge are hydraulic
  142. 142. Slam is mechanical
  143. 143. Slam comes from column reversal
  144. 144. Slam and surge are independent
  145. 145. Check valves are used for protection
  146. 146. Prevent simple column reversal
  147. 147. Ball check valves
  148. 148. Weighted-flapper check valves
  149. 149. Cushioned check valves
  150. 150. Non-slam check valves
  151. 151. Close fast enough to prevent slam
  152. 152. Example: Sudden power loss
  153. 153. Example: Sudden power loss
  154. 154. Example: Sudden power loss
  155. 155. Example: Sudden power loss
  156. 156. Don't close too fast for pumps and systems
  157. 157. Quick self-closure isn't actual slam
  158. 158. Slam is involuntary seating of the valve
  159. 159. Some valves can control both surge and slam  Checktronic  Overcoming high head after bringing pump up to speed
  160. 160. Surge control valve
  161. 161. Water air-release valve
  162. 162. Sewage air-release valve
  163. 163. Wide-body air-release valve
  164. 164. To recap  Force mains need to burp  Force mains need to pass gas  Force mains need to swallow air  Air absorbs some wave energy, but not all  Air pressure, vacuums, and surge waves can damage pipes  Well-maintained automatic valves are an important feature
  165. 165. You don't have to figure it out alone  Free surge analysis available  Air-release analysis also available  Call: 515-223-4144  Email: info@djgongol.com
  166. 166. Questions?  Thank you for coming!
  167. 167. Thank you for your attention!  Contact us anytime with questions  Brian Gongol  DJ Gongol & Associates  515-223-4144  info@djgongol.com
  168. 168. References  Catalog photos of valves are courtesy GA Industries  All other photos are original work by Brian Gongol. All rights reserved.

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