Reclaiming Scholarship in Higher Education

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Slides for my Opening Lecture at the Scottish Educational Research Association Annual Conference, 25th - 26th November 2010 at the Stirling Highland Hotel, Stirling, Scotland

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Reclaiming Scholarship in Higher Education

  1. 1. 1 Reclaiming scholarship as an integrating dimension of academic work for the impact of research on teaching and learning Professor Brian Hudson Scottish Educational Research Association Annual Conference 25th – 26th November 2010 Stirling
  2. 2. 2 Structure of this lecture Reflections on conceptions of scholarship and the implications of processes of fragmentation, division and reductionism How these processes of fragmentation, division and reductionism also apply to ideas about curriculum, competence and teaching The central place of research in academic work in Higher Education and the central place in turn of Higher Education in the professional education of teachers The development of cultures of inquiry in Teacher Education Questions in relation to the debate about the nature of teaching seen merely as a craft or as an inquiry-oriented profession
  3. 3. 3 Milestone 1: 1990 - “Scholarship Reconsidered” published “What we need today is a more inclusive view of what it means to be a scholar – a recognition that knowledge is acquired through research, through synthesis, through practice and through teaching”
  4. 4. 4 Milestone 2: Year 2000 – a Case of “Scholarship Misunderstood”? “If the notions of scholarship, scholar and scholarly are to avoid emptiness and become useable descriptors of teaching, as Ernest Boyer hoped, the concepts behind these terms need clarifying and tightening-up, particularly in the context of a university system re-inventing itself and unsure about its future direction.” Lee W. Andresen (2000) A Useable, Trans-disciplinary Conception of Scholarship, Higher Education Research & Development, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2000.
  5. 5. 5 Milestone 3: 2005 – began work at Umeå University Umeå
  6. 6. 6 An aside – The Teacher Education Policy in Europe Network Future conferences: 13th to 15th 2011 in Vienna hosted by the University of Vienna and the National Department for Science and Research in co-operation with the National Department for Education and Culture May 2012 in Warsaw hosted by the University of Łódź and the Foundation for the Development of the Education System in Poland Web: http://tepe.wordpress.com/ https://twitter.com/TEPEnetwork
  7. 7. 7 Reflections on discussions about the nature of scholarship in Sweden A case of meanings being lost in translation The lack of a corresponding term in the Swedish language
  8. 8. 8 Milestone 4: 2009 - returned to UK – to work at the University of Dundee
  9. 9. 9 Reflections on the advent of Academic Role Profiles
  10. 10. 10 Contested interpretations of the nature and meaning of Curriculum What is curriculum as we now understand the word? … It has a physical existence but also a meaning incarnate … … by virtue of their meaningfulness curricula are not simply means to improve teaching but are expressions of ideas to improve teachers. Of course, they have day-to-day instructional utility: cathedrals must keep the rain out … Lawrence Stenhouse cited in (Ruddock and Hopkins, 1985)
  11. 11. 11 The Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework “Learning outcomes are expressed in terms of a statement of competencies, including knowledge, skills and values, capable of being demonstrated at the end of a process of learning.” (SCQF, 2007, p19) Where are values? SCQF (2007) Handbook Vol 1 with Foreward by Dr Andrew Cubie, Chair, SCQF Partnership
  12. 12. 12 On the contested nature of competence Conceptions arising from behaviourist and positivist thinking Narrow, checklist approaches Versus:- A more liberal concept which sees the achievement of competence as accompanied in its appropriation and in its exercise by the attitudes, beliefs, and personal culture of the person who acquires and exercises the competency in question. (John Coolahan, 2010)
  13. 13. 13 What is the place of Higher Education in the professional education of teachers Teachers simply as technicians? Teaching as a “craft” which is “best learned as an apprentice” - Michael Gove, quoted in TES Connect (2010) Whose interests are being served?
  14. 14. 14 Current Westminster Government policy on Teacher Education: Looking back to the future “teachers are “master workmen … not architects … There is no genius wanted. Good intelligent, discreet teachers are needed.” Who said that? Henry Clay Speer, Chief Superintendant of Schools, Wisconsin Frontier (1878) cited in Kliebard (1999) “The teacher is not only ‘master’ (my italics) of procedure but also of content and rationale, and capable of explaining why something has to be done. The teacher is capable of reflection leading to self knowledge, the metacognitive awareness that distinguishes ‘draftsman’ (my italics) from architect, bookkeeper from auditor” (Lee S. Shulman, 1986)
  15. 15. 15 The struggle for values and for the place of research On the central place of research in academic work as the scholarship of inquiry (in relation to both natural and social sciences). Research as “systematic inquiry…to provide a general theory of educational practice…made public” (Lawrence Stenhouse, 1985) ‘Knowledge’ that is represented as authoritative, and established independently of scholarly warrant … cannot be knowledge. It is faith”. (Lawrence Stenhouse, 1985)
  16. 16. 16 What is the essential role of HE in the professional education of teachers in the EHEA? To fulfil the higher education mission in the European Higher Education Area … a necessary prerequisite is that teacher education rests on research-based foundations with the following basic conditions: Teachers need a profound knowledge of the most recent advances of research in the subjects they teach. In addition, they need to be familiar with the latest research on how something can be taught and learnt. Teacher education in itself should also be an object of study and research. The aim is that teachers internalise a research-orientated attitude towards their work. Key Note address by Professor Hannele Niemi to Lisbon EU Presidency meeting 2007 with reference to Commission of the European Communities (2007) Improving the Quality of Teacher Education. Communication from the commission to the Council and the European parliament 3.8.2007. Brussels.
  17. 17. 17 What is the essential role of HE in Teacher Education elsewhere in the EHEA? The Higher Education Ordinance in Sweden is structured around the following three broad goals: Kunskap och förståelse (Knowledge and understanding), Färdighet och förmåga (Skill and ability) and Värderingsförmåga och förhållningssätt (‘Values ability’ and ’attitudes/praxis of consideration’) Another case of meanings lost in translation?
  18. 18. 18 What is HE required to offer in the context of Scotland? - Key educational principles Programmes of Initial Teacher Education will be expected to: draw on a wide range of intellectual resources, theoretical perspectives and academic disciplines provide student teachers with a broad and balanced knowledge and understanding … encourage student teachers to engage in discussion with pupils … encourage student teachers to engage with fundamental questions concerning the aims and values of education and its relationship to society; provide opportunities for student teachers to engage with and draw on educational theory, research, policy and practice; encourage professional reflection on educational processes in a wide variety of contexts; develop … the ability to construct and sustain a reasoned argument … promote … intellectual independence and critical engagement with evidence
  19. 19. 19 Aspects of Professional Development from the GTCS Standard for Initial Teacher Education
  20. 20. 20 Teaching as a design profession Teaching as a design profession (Clark and Yinger, 1987) Teacher education as a related inter- disciplinary and applied design science (Herb Simon, 1970) Didactical Design for Technology Enhanced Learning (Hudson, 2011) (Hudson, 2011)
  21. 21. 21 On higher order thinking as central to teachers’ professional work http://edorigami.wikispaces.com/Bloom%27s+and+ICT+tools
  22. 22. 22 On the central role of scholarship in teaching and learning
  23. 23. 23 Developing cultures of inquiry and seeing holistically
  24. 24. 24 The machine worldview or seeing holistically Scholarship as related to values, as an attitude of mind and as a praxis of inquiry Scholarship as an undefined activity that is different to and separate from research Teacher as creative designer, teacher education as a design science and teaching as a design profession Teacher as apprentice and teaching as a mere craft Curriculum as planned support for learning to become educated in the widest sense of the word Curriculum as manual objectively reduced simply to knowledge and skills to be learned Competence as accompanied in its appropriation and in its exercise by the attitudes, beliefs, and personal culture of the person who acquires and exercises the competency in question Competence simply as narrowly defined behaviours Holistic viewReductionist view
  25. 25. 25 Teaching as craft or as an inquiry-oriented profession? In teaching there always is: somebody that sometimes, and somewhere, and for some reason in some way facilitates somebody else’s efforts to reach some kinds of competence in some fields of knowledge for certain purposes that have been agreed upon so that an individual could better realise his/her interests.
  26. 26. 26 Teaching as craft or as an inquiry-oriented profession? This time the quote in full: In teaching there always is: somebody that (who?) sometimes (when?), and somewhere (where?), and for some reason (why?) in some way (how?) facilitates somebody else’s (whose?) efforts (by means of what?) to reach some kinds of competence (what kind?) in some fields of knowledge (what?) for certain purposes (what/why?) that have been agreed upon (by whom?) so that an individual could better realise his/her interests. Michael Uljens (1997) School Didactics and Learning. Hove
  27. 27. 27 Thank you for your attention
  28. 28. 28 References Andresen, L. W. (2000) A Useable, Trans-disciplinary Conception of Scholarship, Higher Education Research & Development, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2000. Boyer, E. L. (1990) Scholarship Revisited. Princeton University NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Clark, Ch. M. and Yinger, R. J. (1987) Teacher Planning. In Calderhead, J. (ed.) Exploring Teachers’ Thinking, London: The Falmer Press. Coolahan, J. Key Note Address, Teacher Education Policy in Europe (TEPE) Network Conference, University of Tallinn, 30 September – 1 October 2010. http://eduko.archimedes.ee/files/TEPE%202010_agenda_FINAL-2.pdf
  29. 29. 29 References Healey, M. (2005) Linking research and teaching: exploring disciplinary spaces and the role of inquiry-based learning. In R. Barnett (Ed) Reshaping the University: New Relationships between Research, Scholarship and Teaching. McGraw Hill / Open University Press. Hudson, B. (2011) Didactical Design for Technology Enhanced Learning. In Hudson, B. and Meyer, M. (Eds.) Beyond Fragmentation: Didactics, Learning and Teaching in Europe, Verlag Barbara Budrich, Opladen and Farmington Hills. (Work in Progress) Kliebard, H. (1999) Constructing the Concept of Curriculum on the Wisconsin Frontier: How School Restructuring Sustained a Pedagogical Revolution. In B. Moon and P. Murphy (Eds) Curriculum in Context. London: Paul Chapman Publishing Ltd.
  30. 30. 30 References Niemi, H. (2007) Key Note address to EU Presidency meeting, Lisbon. Ruddock, J. and Hopkins, D. (Eds) (1985) Research as a basis for teaching: Readings from the work of Lawrence Stenhouse, Heineman. SCQF (2007) Handbook Vol. 1, SCQF Partnership [WWW document] URL http://www.scqf.org.uk/nmsruntime/saveasdialog.aspx?lID=125&sID=16 (Accessed 23rd November 2010) Shulman, L. S. (1986) Those who understand: knowledge growth in teaching, Educational Researcher, 15, 2, 4-14.
  31. 31. 31 References Simon, H. (1970) The Sciences of the Artificial. Cambridge, Mass., MIT-Press. Speer, H. C. (1878) A course of study for common schools, Programme and Proceedings of the State Teachers’ Association of Kansas and the Papers Read at the Session of the Association (Topeka, 1878), 22-23. TES Connect (2010) Dons scramble to pour scorn on Gove's shake-up [WWW document] URL http://www.tes.co.uk/article.aspx?storycode=6049296 (Accessed 23rd November 2010) Uljens, M. (1997) School Didactics and Learning. Hove

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