Space For Human Services Planning

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Space For Human Services Planning

  1. 1. Space and Human Services Planning Concepts, issues and problems
  2. 2. Aims and objectives of the study <ul><li>To provide better understanding the complexity of human service planning and space ultilisation </li></ul><ul><li>Identify issues and problems with human services planning </li></ul><ul><li>Debates surrounding spatial data </li></ul><ul><li>Issues of visualisation of human service data </li></ul><ul><li>Methodologies to be considered </li></ul><ul><li>Implications of the study </li></ul>
  3. 3. Defining space <ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical space is defined via measurement . Currently, the standard space interval, called a standard metre, is defined as the distance travelled by light in a vacuum during a time interval of 1/299 792 458 of a second (exact). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measurement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The measurement of physical space has long been important. Geometry , the name given to the branch of mathematics which measures spatial relations, was popularised by the ancient Greeks , although earlier societies had developed measuring systems. The International System of Units , (SI), is now the most common system of units used in the measuring of space, and is almost universally used within science . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geography is the branch of science concerned with identifying and describing the Earth , utilising spatial awareness to try and understand why things exist in specific locations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cartography is the mapping of spaces to allow better navigation, for visualisation purposes and to act as a locational device. Astronomy is the science involved with the observation, explanation and measuring of objects in outer space . </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Defining space <ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The combined use and perception of space by distinct social groups, as opposed to personal space. Social space provides an environmental framework for the behaviour of the group; it is culturally complex, flexible, multiply configured, networked, and reflexive. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http:// www.answers.com /topic/social-space </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Personal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal space is the region surrounding each person, or that area which a person considers their domain or territory. The amount of space a being (person, plant, animal) needs falls into two categories, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>immediate individual physical space (determined by imagined boundaries), </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and the space an individual considers theirs to live in (often called habitat). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Defining space <ul><li>Temporal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Of, relating to, or limited by time: a temporal dimension; temporal and spatial boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Virtual (Cyberspace) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The word &quot;cyberspace&quot; (from cybernetics and space ) was coined by science fiction novelist and seminal cyberpunk author William Gibson in his 1982 story &quot;Burning Chrome&quot; and popularized by his 1984 novel Neuromancer. The portion of Neuromancer cited in this respect is usually the following: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cyberspace. A consensual hallucination experienced daily by billions of legitimate operators, in every nation, by children being taught mathematical concepts... A graphic representation of data abstracted from banks of every computer in the human system. Unthinkable complexity. Lines of light ranged in the nonspace of the mind, clusters and constellations of data. Like city lights, receding , (69). Hola </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Defining space <ul><li>Psychological </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinct branch within psychology dealing the perception of space, the focus deals with the recognition of an object's physical appearance or its interactions are perceived </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Philosophical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceptual space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbolic space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Harvey (1973 p28) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Defining cartographic space <ul><li>Personal </li></ul><ul><li>Land use </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical </li></ul>
  8. 8. Hierarchies of space - personal <ul><li>Society </li></ul>Region Individual/family household Community Neighbourhood State Region Place Space Locality Tertiary relationships Secondary relationships Primary relationships
  9. 9. Personal Space
  10. 10. Statistical Space Tertiary relationships Secondary relationships Primary relationships
  11. 11. Land Use <ul><li>Title to land clearly stated and described. </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lot, portion, parish, city/shire, county, division </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Permitted uses defined by zoning and local planning rules </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy of use definitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local Environment Plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialist Planning requirements e.g.. Heritage, social development, economic development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional Environment Plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State Environment Plans </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Administrative Space <ul><li>No consistency in the determination of boundaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Each authority will determine its administrative geography according internal needs and political considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-regional geography boundaries variable, some based on locality, postcode or local government areas </li></ul><ul><li>Often sub-regional boundaries will overlap </li></ul>
  13. 13. Issues for planning human services <ul><li>Conflicting definitional issues of space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Typologies of space </li></ul><ul><li>Area based approaches </li></ul>
  14. 14. Problems of planning methodology <ul><li>Scale </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial fallacies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple Areal Unit Problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological Fallacy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Statistical fallacies </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropomorphism of social disadvantage and equity </li></ul>
  15. 15. Problem of numbers <ul><li>Because an area has the numbers it may not have the population base for a service </li></ul>
  16. 16. Human service planning process – Australian Social Inclusion Board <ul><li>A 5-step methodology for selecting priority locations to assist children at risk and jobless families in deeply disadvantaged locations, namely: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. For each suburb the population of people residing in the most disadvantaged five per cent of collection districts nationally is calculated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. A Geographic Information System is used to identify any single suburbs or clusters of suburbs where over 3000 persons (2000 in rural areas) reside in one of the most disadvantage five per cent of suburbs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AUSTRALIAN SOCIAL INCLUSION BOARD Record of the meeting of the Board on 19 November, 2008 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Human service planning process – Australian Social Inclusion Board <ul><ul><li>3. These areas are cross-referenced against other key indicators of disadvantage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. The refined list is used as a basis for consultation with states and territories to help refine the list of priority interventions and identify potential strategic options for collaboration. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Consideration is given to including at least one location below the 2000 person threshold and at least one trial based on a larger regionally focused approach. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Key Issues - Australian Social Inclusion Board Approach <ul><li>Presumption statistical space is same as administrative space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In NSW ABS derived suburbs have numerous spatial and population errors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No operational definition of disadvantage </li></ul><ul><li>Assumes target population actually resides in indentified areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Data quality issues with administrative data especially spatial accuracy aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Current calculation of disadvantage uses non spatial assumptions, data location is not a consideration. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Problems of what space 100% 11 Lansdowne Derived Suburbs Lansdowne Gazetted Suburb 100.00% 668 Total 1.65% 11 LANSDOWNE 15.57% 104 GEORGES HALL 82.78% 553 BASS HILL Gazetted Suburbs Lansdowne Derived Suburb 100.00% 7008 Total 70.22% 4921 Villawood 29.78% 2087 Fairfield East Derived Suburbs Villawood Gazetted Suburb 100.00% 5119 Total 96.13% 4921 VILLAWOOD 3.87% 198 CHESTER HILL Gazetted Suburbs Villawood Derived Suburb
  20. 20. Data Accuracy – Statistical data
  21. 21. Lansdowne, Villawood and Georges Hall
  22. 22. Role of human services planning <ul><li>Addressing vertical and horizontal inequity </li></ul><ul><li>Ensuring adequate resources address areas actual demand and identification of new areas of potential demand for additional resources. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Modes of human service planning <ul><li>Bricks and mortar (high degree of conformity with clients to setting) </li></ul><ul><li>Program basis </li></ul><ul><li>Client – voucher </li></ul><ul><li>Focus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Origin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destination </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. The problem of planning <ul><li>No core set of ideas that create a theoretical framework </li></ul><ul><li>Draws inspiration from several diverse theoretical frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily concerned with resource allocation for specific purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Has various modes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social/Community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land use etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pragmatism and ideology are the main drivers </li></ul><ul><li>Political interference </li></ul>
  25. 25. Resource Allocation Formula <ul><li>Most human service planning uses a form of resource allocation formula </li></ul>
  26. 26. Resource Allocation Formula <ul><li>Need index = (0.441 * 61.15 + 0.489 * 53.28) = 53.02(1) This is divided by the population-weighted mean of need in the whole country (56.87). We get: </li></ul><ul><li>Weighted need index = 53.02/56.87 = 0.93(2) The expenditure need per 0–6-year-old child is: </li></ul><ul><li>Expenditure need = (7,327 + 27,165 * 0.93)/34,492 = 0.94(3) This is multiplied by Sotkamo's index of the 0–6-year-olds. The final index is: </li></ul><ul><li>Index = 0.94 * 0.93 = 0.87(4) which indicates that Sotkamo's expenditure need for day care is 13% less than the average in all municipalities. </li></ul><ul><li>The index for income support is rather simple. The unemployment rate is 18.2, and there are 8.08% single parents with children under seven years of age. The population of the municipality is 11,289. The coefficients are from Table 4 . </li></ul><ul><li>Index = (10.9 * 18.2 + 10.8 * 8.08 + 44.5 * ln(11,289))/766.78 = 0.89(5) where 766.78 is the weighted mean of the income support index in the whole country. There is 11% less need for income support in Sotkamo than in average </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hannu Valtonen 1 , Juha Laine 2 (2002) Study on a resource allocation formula for social services in Finland </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Resource Allocation Formula
  28. 28. Resource Allocation Formula <ul><li>The question is thus </li></ul>
  29. 29. Assumptions geography and scale and service planning What is the mean? 1,200 total population 145 with dementia 12.1 % of the population Location A 800 total population 130 with dementia 13.8 % of the population Location B 1300 total population 150 with dementia 11.5 % of the population Location C 10,000 total population 0 with dementia 0% of the population Location D 9.3%? or 3.05 %? What is the mean? 1,200 total population 145 with dementia 12.1 % of the population Location A 800 total population 130 with dementia 13.8 % of the population Location B 1300 total population 150 with dementia 11.5 % of the population Location C 10,000 total population 0 with dementia 0% of the population Location D 9.3%? or 3.05 %?
  30. 30. A problem of scale
  31. 31. Spatial Domains <ul><li>Grouping of spaces associated with perceived and real distances between the elements of the domain </li></ul><ul><li>The intensity, frequency of distances between the actors influences the type of domain </li></ul><ul><li>Domains overlap and have no distinct boundaries </li></ul>
  32. 32. Space as a hierarchy of domains & the links <ul><li>Primary </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary </li></ul><ul><li>Tertiary </li></ul>Primary Secondary Tertiary
  33. 33. Methodological Issues
  34. 34. Problem of postcodes
  35. 35. Postcode stability 1991 to 2006
  36. 36. Implications of the study <ul><li>Space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of multiple resources to determine space boundary/catchment area </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Service planning and provisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data sets used in the planning must include origin-destination markers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rigidity of the area based planning should be reviewed and incorporate other methodologies available </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Finally Perhaps in human services planning space is the final frontier In human services planning space is the final frontier

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