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  1. 1. Warmup <ul><li>Match the area with the hearth. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Islam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hinduism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judaism </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. What are the three classifications of Religions? <ul><li>Monotheistic religions – worship a single deity. </li></ul><ul><li>Polytheistic religions – worship more than one deity, even thousands. </li></ul><ul><li>Animistic religions – belief that inanimate objects posses spirits and should be revered. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Religion Chapter 7
  4. 4. What is Religion and What Role does it Play in Culture? Key Question:
  5. 5. Warmup <ul><li>What was the Soviet Union’s official religious policy? </li></ul><ul><li>How did they control ethnic and religious groups? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Government Impact on Religion <ul><li>The Soviet Union: </li></ul><ul><li>Had an official policy of atheism </li></ul><ul><li>Discouraged religious practice </li></ul><ul><li>Drew boundaries for political control that separated ethnic groups in small areas </li></ul>
  7. 7. Armenia and Azerbaijan Soviet Union’s divide-and-diminish plan
  8. 8. Religion <ul><li>“ a system of beliefs and practices that attempts to order life in terms of culturally perceived ultimate priorities.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Stoddard and Prorak </li></ul><ul><li>“ perceived ultimate priorities” often translate into a list of things a follower “should” do and ways a follower “should” behave. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Religion <ul><li>A set of beliefs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>existence of a higher power, spirits or god </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an explanation of the origins and purpose of humans and their role on earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which involves rituals, festivals, rites of passage and space (religious landscapes) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Branch : A large and fundamental division within a religion. </li></ul><ul><li>Denomination : A division within a branch of a religion. </li></ul><ul><li>Sect : A relatively small denominational group that has broken away from an established church. </li></ul>Religious Divisions
  11. 11. Disposition of the Deceased - Each religion approaches the disposition of the deceased in different ways, and cultural landscapes reflect the religious traditions. Hindu crematorium in Mombasa, Kenya
  12. 12. Religion’s impact in history and culture is evident in its centrality in many places Antwerp, Belgium
  13. 13. Describe how religion and language affect and change each other to shape cultures. (Consider what happens to a society’s religion and language when a different religion or language diffuses into the place).
  14. 14. Where did the Major Religions of the World Originate, and How do Religions Diffuse? Key Question:
  15. 15. Classifications of Religions <ul><li>Monotheistic religions – worship a single deity. </li></ul><ul><li>Polytheistic religions – worship more than one deity, even thousands. </li></ul><ul><li>Animistic religions – belief that inanimate objects posses spirits and should be revered. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Classifications of Religions <ul><li>Universalizing religions – religions that actively seek converts because members believe they offer belief systems of universal appropriateness and appeal. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic religions – religions whose adherents are born into the faith and whose members do not actively seek converts. </li></ul>
  17. 17. How do Universalizing and Ethnic Religions Differ? <ul><li>Universalizing </li></ul><ul><li>Appeal to people everywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Individual founder (prophet) </li></ul><ul><li>Message diffused widely (missionaries) </li></ul><ul><li>Followers distributed widely. </li></ul><ul><li>Holidays based on events in founder’s life. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic </li></ul><ul><li>Has meaning in particular place only. </li></ul><ul><li>Unknown source. </li></ul><ul><li>Content focused on place and landscape of origin. </li></ul><ul><li>Followers highly clustered. </li></ul><ul><li>Holidays based on local climate and agricultural practice. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Warmup <ul><li>Pick up one of the sheets on Jordan’s desk. Please don’t write on, but attempt to answer questions 1-3 as our warmup today. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Major World Religions <ul><li>Universalizing Religions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christianity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Traced to actions and teaching of a man </li></ul><ul><li>Diffused from specific hearths by followers / missionaries </li></ul>
  20. 20. Major World Religions <ul><li>Ethnic Religions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hinduism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judaism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>all Animistic Religions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No specific founder </li></ul><ul><li>limited diffusion / no missionaries </li></ul>
  21. 21. Religions of the World Where are universalizing religions located? Where are ethnic religions located?
  22. 23.
  23. 24. Hearths of Religion and Philosophy by 500 BCE
  24. 25. From the Hearth of South Asia
  25. 26. From the Hearth of South Asia <ul><li>Hinduism – </li></ul><ul><li>originated in Indus River Valley over 4000 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>* ritual bathing, karma, reincarnation, moksha </li></ul><ul><li>sacred text: Vedas </li></ul><ul><li>sacred sites: Ganges River </li></ul><ul><li>social manifestation: caste system </li></ul><ul><li>diffusion: through South Asia and into Southeast Asia, mainly India </li></ul>
  26. 27. Hindu Temple – Angkor Wat, Cambodia. This temple suffers from neglect and destruction now, as Buddhism has supplanted Hinduism in most of Cambodia.
  27. 28. Hinduism Lord Vishnu Dancing Shiva/Nataraj Ganesh
  28. 30. Buddhism <ul><li>300 million + adherents primarily in China and S.E. Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Originated near modern Nepal around 530 BC by prince Siddhartha Guatama. </li></ul><ul><li>Spread originally in India and Sri Lanka by Magadhan Empire (250 BC). </li></ul><ul><li>Indian traders brought it to China in 1st century AD. </li></ul><ul><li>By 6th century it had lost its hold on India, but was now in Korea and Japan. </li></ul>
  29. 31. From the Hearth of South Asia <ul><li>Buddhism – </li></ul><ul><li>splintered from Hinduism 2500 years ago. Originated in a region from Nepal south to the Ganges River area. </li></ul><ul><li>* anyone can achieve salvation, reach enlightenment </li></ul><ul><li>founder: Siddartha Guatama(the Buddha) </li></ul><ul><li>sacred sites: stupas </li></ul><ul><li>diffusion: most strongly into Tibet in the north and </li></ul><ul><li>into East Asia, branches Theraveda, Mahayana, and Zen </li></ul>
  30. 32. Buddhism Four Noble Truths: 1. All living beings must endure suffering. 2. Suffering, which is caused by desires (for life), leads to reincarnation. 3. The goal of existence is an escape from suffering and the endless cycle of reincarnation by means of Nirvana. 4. Nirvana is achieved by the Eightfold Path, which includes rightness of understanding, mindfulness, speech, action, livelihood, effort, thought, and concentration. Theravada - the older, more severe form which requires the renouncing of all worldly goods and desires. Mahayana - focuses on Buddha’s teachings and compassion. Karma - your past bad or good actions determine your progress toward Nirvana through reincarnation. You are your own God.
  31. 33. Buddhist Stupas - 72 stupas, each containing a sculpture of the Buddha in meditation were built around 800 CE and still stand in Borobudur, Indonesia.
  32. 36. His Holiness the 14th Dali Lama
  33. 37. Buddhism is mixed with local religions in some places. In Japan, Buddhism is mixed with the local religion, Shintoism. Shinto Shrine In Kyoto, Japan, this Shinto shrine is visible after walking through a torii – a gateway usually formed by two wooden posts and topped by two horizontal beams.
  34. 38. From the Hearth of Huang He (Yellow) River Valley
  35. 39. From the Hearth of Huang He (Yellow) River Valley <ul><li>Taoism – </li></ul><ul><li>originated in China more than 2500 years ago </li></ul><ul><li>* oneness of humanity and nature </li></ul><ul><li>founder: Lao-Tsu </li></ul><ul><li>sacred text: “Book of the Way” </li></ul><ul><li>social manifestation: Feng Shui </li></ul><ul><li>diffusion: East Asia </li></ul>
  36. 40. From the Hearth of Huang He (Yellow) River Valley <ul><li>Confucianism – </li></ul><ul><li>originated in China about 2500 years ago </li></ul><ul><li>* real meaning of life lay in the present </li></ul><ul><li>founder: Confucius </li></ul><ul><li>sacred text: “Confucian Classics” </li></ul><ul><li>diffusion: East Asia, Southeast Asia </li></ul>
  37. 41. From the Hearth of the Eastern Mediterranean
  38. 42. From the Hearth of the Eastern Mediterranean <ul><li>Judaism – </li></ul><ul><li>originated in Southwest Asia about 4000 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>* first major monotheistic religion, covenant between </li></ul><ul><li>God (one God) and Abraham (the chosen people) </li></ul><ul><li>sacred text: Torah </li></ul><ul><li>founder: Abraham </li></ul><ul><li>sacred sites: Jerusalem (Western Wall), land between </li></ul><ul><li>the Mediterranean and the Jordan River </li></ul><ul><li>social manifestation: Zionism </li></ul><ul><li>diffusion: into European cities during the diaspora, </li></ul><ul><li>into N. America during WWII, into Israel over </li></ul><ul><li>last 50 years </li></ul>
  39. 43. Western Wall, Jerusalem
  40. 44. Jewish neighborhoods in European Cities the Old Jewish Cemetery in Prague, the Czech Republic
  41. 45. From the Hearth of the Eastern Mediterranean <ul><li>Christianity – </li></ul><ul><li>originated in Southwest Asia about 2000 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>* monotheistic religion, follow teachings of Jesus to </li></ul><ul><li>achieve eternal life </li></ul><ul><li>sacred text: Bible </li></ul><ul><li>founder: Jesus (son of God) </li></ul><ul><li>sacred sites: Bethlehem, Jerusalem </li></ul><ul><li>split in the church: </li></ul><ul><li>* split into Eastern Orthodox and Roman </li></ul><ul><li>Catholic churches in 1054 </li></ul><ul><li>* Protestant sect split off in 1400s and 1500s </li></ul><ul><li>diffusion: into Western Europe, and then world wide </li></ul><ul><li>during colonialism and after. </li></ul>
  42. 46. <ul><li>Catholicism - largest branch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Headed by the Pope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>direct link to God </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ceremonial - 7 sacraments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>baptism, marriage, Eucharist, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very traditional </li></ul></ul>Christianity
  43. 47. <ul><li>Eastern Orthodoxy - 5th Century split </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rivalry between Pope and Patriarch of Constantinople (Istanbul) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rome remained center for Roman Catholicism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rejected Roman Catholicism doctrine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>by 1054 officially split </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Churches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Russian, Greek, Serbian Orthodox, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>Christianity
  44. 48. <ul><li>Protestantism - (1517) Reformation era </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No Pope needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>individual has direct link to God </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grace through faith rather than sacraments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>forgiveness for sins through indiv. prayers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread though N. Europe and England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>arose same time as 1466 Gutenberg Bible and the printing press </li></ul></ul></ul>Christianity
  45. 49. First Split in Christianity, 1054 CE Western Roman empire = Roman Catholicism Eastern Roman empire = Eastern Orthodox
  46. 50. Switzerland concentrations of Catholics and Protestants by canton and commune
  47. 51. From the Hearth of the Eastern Mediterranean <ul><li>Islam – </li></ul><ul><li>originated on Arabian peninsula about 1500 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>* monotheistic religion, revelations Muhammad </li></ul><ul><li>received from Allah, Five Pillars. </li></ul><ul><li>sacred text: Qu’ran </li></ul><ul><li>founder: Muhammad </li></ul><ul><li>sacred sites: Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem split in the church: </li></ul><ul><li>* shortly after Muhammad’s death, split into Sunni Muslims (great majority) </li></ul><ul><li>Shi’ite Muslims (concentrated in Iran) </li></ul><ul><li>diffusion: across Arabian peninsula, across North </li></ul><ul><li>Africa, into Spain and also east into Southeast Asia </li></ul>
  48. 53. Islam <ul><li>Five Pillars of Islam </li></ul><ul><li>There is one God and Muhammad is his messenger. </li></ul><ul><li>Prayer five times daily, facing Mecca. </li></ul><ul><li>The giving of alms(charity) to the poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Fasting during Ramadan for purification and submission. </li></ul><ul><li>If body and income allow, a Muslim must make a pilgrimage (hajj) to Mecca in his lifetime. </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic Calender </li></ul><ul><li>Begins in AD 622 when Muhammad was commanded to Mecca from Medina (Hijra). </li></ul><ul><li>Lunar calendar makes Ramadan move through the seasons (30 year cycle - 19 years with 354 days and 11 with 355). </li></ul>Reading the Koran, Brunei Prophet: Muhammad Holy Text: Koran
  49. 54. The Diffusion of Islam
  50. 55. What type of religious architecture does this airport express?
  51. 56. Minaret (for call to prayer) stands on the Sabah State Mosque in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia
  52. 57. Diffusion of Islam into Europe large mosque in Paris, France
  53. 58. The Rest of the Map
  54. 59. Religions of the World <ul><li>Shamanism – </li></ul><ul><li>a community faith tradition in which people follow their shaman, a religious leader, teacher, healer, and visionary. </li></ul>
  55. 60. Not on the Map
  56. 61. Rise of Secularism <ul><li>Secularism – </li></ul><ul><li>indifference to or rejection of organized religious affiliations and ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>- Where is secularism on the rise and why? </li></ul>
  57. 62. Migration plays a large role in the diffusion of religions, both universalizing and ethnic. As Europe becomes more secular, migrants from outside of Europe continue to settle in the region. Imagine Europe 30 years from now. Predict where in Europe secularism will be the most prominent and where religious adherence will strengthen.
  58. 63. How is Religion seen in the Cultural Landscape? Key Question:
  59. 64. Sacred Sites and Pilgrimage <ul><li>Sacred Sites </li></ul><ul><li>places or spaces people infuse with religious meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Pilgrimage </li></ul><ul><li>purposeful travel to a religious site to pay respects or participate in a ritual at the site. </li></ul>
  60. 65. Sacred Sites and Pilgrimage Vatican City Pope John Paul II greeted pilgrims in St. Peter’s Square
  61. 66. Sacred Sites and Rituals At Saint Declan’s Holy Well in Ardmore, Ireland Pilgrims hang scraps of clothing as offerings This practice is common at sacred sites in Far Eastern Russia
  62. 67. Sacred Sites of Jerusalem <ul><li>Jerusalem is sacred to three major religions: </li></ul><ul><li>Judaism (Western Wall) </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity (Church of the Holy Sepulchre) </li></ul><ul><li>Islam (Dome of the Rock) </li></ul>
  63. 68. Sacred Landscapes of Hinduism <ul><li>Hinduism – pilgrimages follow prescribed routes, and rituals are followed by millions. </li></ul>Varanasi, India on the Ganges River where Hindus perform morning rituals.
  64. 69. Sacred Landscapes of Buddhism Swedogon Pagodo in Yangon, Myanmar Eight hairs of the Buddha are preserved under the dome ( chedi )
  65. 70. Sacred Landscapes of Christianity Catholic Churches Are often located in the center of European cities, with spires reaching far above the other buildings.
  66. 71. Sacred Landscapes of Christianity Protestant Churches This church in Singapore is a Church of England church in city surrounded by Buddhists, Hindus, and Muslims
  67. 72. Religious Landscapes in the United States
  68. 73. Protestant and Catholic Landscapes in the United States Scandinavian Lutheran Church (on left) St. Mary’s Catholic Church (on right)
  69. 74. Sacred Landscapes of Islam Muslim Mosques Dome of this mosque in Isfahan, Iran demonstrates the importance of geometric art evident in Muslim architecture.
  70. 75. The Hajj Pilgrims circle the holy Kaaba in the Grand Mosque in Mecca, Saudi Arabia during the Hajj.
  71. 76. Choose a pilgrimage site, such as Mecca, Vatican City, or the Western Wall, and describe how the act of pilgrimage (in some cases by millions) alters this place’s cultural landscape and environment.
  72. 78. What Role does Religion play in Political Conflicts? Key Question:
  73. 79. What are the different types of Religious Borders? <ul><li>Interfaith Boundaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boundaries between the world’s major faiths. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intrafaith Boundaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boundaries within a single major faith. </li></ul></ul>
  74. 80. Interfaith Boundary in Africa
  75. 81. Israel and Palestine
  76. 82. Landscapes of Settlements Israelis have had a policy of building settlements for Jews in the Occupied Territories
  77. 83. Landscape of the Gaza Strip, 2005 In 2005, the Israeli government pulled out of the Gaza Strip, burning down Jewish settlements and handing control over to Palestinians.
  78. 84. The West Bank with a the proposed security wall, parts of which the Israeli government has already built.
  79. 85. The Horn of Africa Amharic (Coptic) Christianity is in central Ethiopia Islam diffused into the Horn of Africa Indigenous religions remain in pockets ,
  80. 86. The Former Yugoslavia Genocide Ethnic Cleansing
  81. 87. Northern Ireland <ul><li>Identities are tied to Religion, but are </li></ul><ul><li>deepened by: </li></ul><ul><li>Economics </li></ul><ul><li>colonial experiences </li></ul><ul><li>activity spaces (segregation) </li></ul>
  82. 88. Religious Fundamentalism and Extremism <ul><li>Religious fundamentalism – </li></ul><ul><li>a return to the basics of their faith. </li></ul><ul><li>found in Christianity, Judaism, and Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Religious extremism – </li></ul><ul><li>fundamentalism carried to the point of violence. </li></ul><ul><li>found in Christianity, Judaism, and Islam </li></ul>
  83. 89. Islamic Extremists and Jihad an Islamic holy war against the West
  84. 90. Boal’s studies in Northern Ireland demonstrate that solving a religious conflict is typically not about theology; it is about identity. You are assigned the potentially Nobel Prize-winning task of “solving” the conflict either in Northern Ireland or in Israel and Palestine. Using Boal’s example, determine how you can alter activity spaces and change identities to create the conditions for long-lasting peace in one of these major conflict zones.