Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Badges? We Don't Need No Stinkin' Badges!


Published on

Presentation given at the NJEdge 2012 Annual Conference. See for more information.

Published in: Education
  • Login to see the comments

Badges? We Don't Need No Stinkin' Badges!

  1. 1. Badges? We Don’t Need No Stinkin’ Badges!And Other Gamification Myths
  2. 2. Presentation Download•
  3. 3. Who am I?• Lead Instructional Designer• At PSU since 1984• Working on bringing best practices/uses of educational technology to Penn State • Founded the Educational Gaming Commons
  4. 4. The Educational Gaming Commons • Goal • Foster research, teaching, and learning around educational games, virtual worlds, and simulations. • Staff • Brett Bixler – Founder and Evangelist • Chris Stubbs – Manager • Elizabeth Pyatt – Instructional Designer • Web – • Facebook -
  5. 5. The EGC (contd)• Projects • Engagement Initiatives • One-on-one consultations • Virtual Worlds Research and Development • Sponsoring presentations, guest speakers, etc.• EGC Lab • Innovative space at PSU containing PCs, game consoles, and a variety of games, virtual worlds, and simulations
  6. 6. Some EGC Works
  7. 7. iStudy for Success!• .• Tutorials designed to advance students’ knowledge in areas that can promote overall academic achievement.
  9. 9. What is your level of knowledge about gamification?
  10. 10. What is your level of knowledge about digital badges?
  11. 11. Why are gamification and badges important to education?
  12. 12. How It All Started…
  13. 13. This is Stupid• Gamification is dumb.• Badges are stupid! (He’s lying.)
  14. 14. What is Gamification?Gamification <>Games
  15. 15. What is Gamification? 2
  16. 16. What’s Going on Here?
  17. 17. How About Here?• Foldit.• An online puzzle game about protein folding.• Scientists can use the “results” to solve real-world problems.• Players get bragging rights.
  18. 18. Gamification Defined• Gamification • The use of one or more "game-like elements" or dynamics in a non-game context to improve engagement or change behavior.• Game-like Elements • Pieces or mechanics that make up games.
  19. 19. Badges Defined• A digital badge is an online record of an achievement, the work required, and information about the entity that issued the badge.
  20. 20. What is this Important?• Education is under attack!• Costs of education are spiraling up.• Employers want skills, not degrees.• Open courseware.• MOOCs.• Badges.
  21. 21. The Barbarians Are at the Gate!And there ain’t nothin’ you can do about it!
  22. 22. Or can you?
  23. 23. A Vision of the FutureWhat will the future hold for education?
  24. 24. Back to the Present…Let’s look at gamification andbadges in today’s world.
  25. 25. Game-like ElementsOver 25 Elements ExistAchievements Infinite GameplayAppointments LevelsBadges Loss AversionBehavioral Momentum LotteryBlissful Productivity OwnershipBonuses PointsCascading Information Theory ProgressionCombos QuestsCommunity Collaboration Reward SchedulesCountdown StatusDiscovery Urgent OptimismEpic Meaning ViralityFree Lunch From
  26. 26. Achievements• A virtual or physical representation of having accomplished something.• Achievements can be easy, difficult, surprising, funny, accomplished alone or as a group.• Achievements are a way to give players a way to brag.
  27. 27. Cascading Information• Theory Match the level of task difficulty to the current ability of the student. Scaffolding• Provide just enough support so the student can accomplish the task. Remove this “scaffolding” over time.
  28. 28. Progressive ImplementationA series of tasks, from simple to complex, that lead towardsthe ultimate goal.
  29. 29. Levels• Levels are a system by which players are rewarded for accumulating points.• Often features or abilities are unlocked as players progress to higher levels.• Levelling is one of the highest components of motivation for gamers.Examples • Real world – Job promotions. • In a game – Earn enough points. • A good use – Use levels to show competencies.
  30. 30. Points & Leaderboards• Points are a running numerical value given for any single action or combination of actions.• Leaderboards allow one to display their “earnings” to the world.Examples • Real world – Grocery points. • In a game – Earn enough points. • A good use – Grade by points.
  31. 31. Marriage – The Game?
  32. 32. Progression• Where success is granularly displayed and measured through the process of completing itemized tasks. Progress bars!Examples • Real world – Coffee cards. Buy 6, get one free. • In a game - Progress bars and subtasks. As you level up, you receive power and better equipment, etc. Progression is powerful. • A good use – Show students where they are in a course.
  33. 33. Status• The rank or level of a player.• Players are often motivated by trying to reach a higher level or status.
  34. 34. If You Do This Right – Flow!• The ultimate motivational state, where hours go by in minutes.• Achieved by balancing the learner’s current ability with the difficulty of the current challenge.
  35. 35. This Sounds Too Good…What is a potential problemwith gamification?
  36. 36. What is it All About?• Feedback! It’s motivating.• Timely informing the student of their accomplishments/failures.• Games do it all the time!• Behavioristic in nature.
  37. 37. Motivation?• Defining it is an elusive prcess, as difficult to do as grasping a slippery fish in a dark cave.• Here’s the one I like: • “The term motivation in psychology is a global concept for a variety of processes and effects whose common core is the realization that an organism selects a particular behavior because of expected consequences, and then implements it with some measure of energy, along a particular path.” (Heckhausen, 1991, p. 9).
  38. 38. Extrinsic vs. Intrinsic Motivation Extrinsic - From outside you. Intrinsic - From inside you. • There is a controversy over gamification and extrinsic motivation - some say it weakens or “crowds out” intrinsic motivation. • See Deci, Koestner, & Ryan (1999). A meta- analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological Bulletin 125(6), 627- 668.
  39. 39. Extrinsic vs. Intrinsic Motivation 2 • Extrinsic rewards may “crowd out” intrinsic motivation. • Sometimes called the over-justification effect. • Tangible rewards (bonuses) may be the most de-motivating. • Unexpected rewards (at random) may be OK. • Performance-contingent (do a job, get a reward) may be de-motivating if the reward is tangible (money) but OK if it is intangible (praise).
  40. 40. Self Determination Theory and GamificationThree factors • Competence – I am accomplishing something. • Autonomy – I am in control. I am doing it because I want to. Meaningful choices. • Relatedness – I am serving a larger cause/social group/community. • See Deci & Ryan at
  41. 41. The ARCS Model• By John Keller -• Attention – How do you gain it?• Relevance – Tie it to the leaner’s life experience.• Confidence – Build in learning success.• Satisfaction – Make learning rewarding.
  42. 42. But What About Those Stinkin’ Badges?
  43. 43. Badges• An overt reward of achievement.• Meant to be displayed for others to see. Examples • Real world – Scouts. • In a game – Complete a task, earn a badge. • A good use – Mozilla Badges.
  44. 44. Badges 2• A digital badge is an online record of an achievement, the work required, and information about the organization, individual or other entity that issued the badge.• A digital badge "certifies" information that has been consumed and skills acquired by the badge earner.• Digital badges can be used for assessed or non- assessed learning, as determined by the badge issuer.
  45. 45. Badges 3 Example: •A badge issued to people who are present at a workshop as an indication of attendance. • One might also require some measurement of comprehension and retention (via a quiz or an assignment submission) before issuing a badge.
  46. 46. Open Badges• The Open Badges Infrastructure (OBI) project was initiated by Mozilla to create a universal framework for badges.• The Mozilla framework consists of three components: – Issuer – Earner – Displayer
  47. 47. A Badge In Action
  48. 48. A Badge In Action 2
  49. 49. Displaying a Badge
  50. 50. Potential Benefits of BadgesEnhance One’s Digital Identity•Provide a more granular and complete picture of skills andlearning history than a traditional degree.•Provide informal certification, e.g., from clubs, workexperience or online.•Assist in third-party as opposed to individual validation.•Signal skills and achievements to peers, potential employers,educational institutions and others.•Recognize “hidden” skills - appropriating information, judgingits quality, multitasking and networking that dont show up on atranscript.
  51. 51. Potential Benefits of Badges 2Enable Global Perspectives•Allow one to share skill sets with the world. This fostersflexibility and connections.
  52. 52. Potential Benefits of Badges 3Facilitate Better Instructional Management•Support better individualized learner support.•Capture the learning path and history. – Badges can capture a more specific set of skills and qualities as they occur along the way, along with issue dates for each. This means we can track the set of steps the most successful learners take to gain their skills - and potentially replicate that experience for others.•Assist in accreditation. – By capturing the learning path, meeting the documentation needs of accreditation agencies will be eased.
  53. 53. Potential Uses of Badges• "Course Completion" badge – Certifies that an individual completed a certain course.• "Competency-Based" badges – Gives students a way to demonstrate competency derived from course offerings or non-class experiences, such as clubs.• "Honors" badge in a program – Define requirements to achieve honors and motivate students to perform.• "Event Participation" badge – For participation in sponsored events.• "Community Membership" badge – To establish that an individual actively participates or has participated in a given community. This can increase the size and participation in academic communities.
  54. 54. What is the main “problem” with digital badges?
  55. 55. Questions About Badges• Badge infrastructure and metadata is evolving.• Spoofed badges.• Support structures needed by an institution to host badges must be created.• Policies on badges for higher education institutions do not exist. Issuing, accepting from the outside - what does that means for revenue?• Forces us to examine our current assessment structures.
  56. 56. Badges = Accountability!
  57. 57. Badge Skeptic?• Read Henry Jenkin’s cautionary post on badges.•
  58. 58. Insurgent Credentials• Great read by Michael Olneck, UWM•
  59. 59. Some Gamification Providers
  60. 60. Image Credits• Barbarian – – Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)• Schooling for the Future – g-for-the-future.jpg – Free to use – Advanced Google Images search.• Two people talking – – In the public domain.• Panic Button – – Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic license.
  61. 61. Some Gamification Info. Sites • Kapp Notes • • Gamify • • • Gamifying Education • • The Gamification Summit • • April 16-18, 2013
  62. 62. Some Badges Info. Sites• Open Badges Overview – learn-more-about-open-badges• Show Me Your Badge – me-your-badge.html?pagewanted=all• EDUCAUSE– 7 Things Your Should Know About Badges – should-know-about-badges
  63. 63. In Conclusion
  64. 64. Jerry Orbach My Hero
  65. 65. DiscussionLet’s talk!
  66. 66. Thanks!• Brett Bixler• or•• Twitter: brettbixler