Energy Issues


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Energy Issues

  1. 1. Air & Energy Issues<br />Monday December 13th<br />
  2. 2. Air Issues<br />The Atmosphere<br />The Grasshopper Effect<br />Acidic Deposition<br />Ozone Layer<br />
  3. 3. The Atmosphere<br />Comprised of a mixture of particles, aerosols and gases<br />Approximately 1000 km thick<br />Sustains life on the planet<br />Protects us from Ultra Violet Radiation (UV) from the sun <br />
  4. 4. The Atmosphere<br />Green house Gases- carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. Represent a small portion of the atmosphere but regulate temperature.<br />The layer of the atmosphere we are most concerned with is the Troposphere:<br />Varied thickness from 9-16 km above the earths surface<br />Where weather occurs and pollution is found<br />
  5. 5. The Atmosphere<br />
  6. 6. The Atmosphere<br />Human activities have a profound effect on the atmosphere since the time of the Industrial Revolution in the early 1900’s <br />Air pollution also has a large impact on peoples health (especially young children, the elderly, those with heart and respiratory conditions)<br />Environment Canada attributes over 5000 deaths/ year to air pollution<br />An estimated $1 billion/year are spend on hospitaladmissions, emergency room visits and absenteeism is due to air pollution (Ontario Medical Assoc., 2007)<br />
  7. 7. The Grasshopper Effect<br />Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)- highly toxic substances used in pesticides and industrials chemicals (i.e. PCB’s). They are insoluble by water, and stay within the environment for many years before breaking down. <br />
  8. 8. The Grasshopper Effect<br />A global issue in which POPs move from warmer to colder regions. <br />The pollutants evaporate, travel through the atmosphere (on air currents), and then condense in a new location.<br />Tend to stay in colder regions because there is less evaporation in those areas. <br />
  9. 9. The Grasshopper Effect<br />Less Evaporation <br />Colder <br />Polar Regions<br />Temperate Regions<br />More Evaporation <br />Hotter<br />Equatorial Regions<br />
  10. 10. Air Issues<br />Acidic Deposition<br />Acidic pollutants can be deposited as a gas or a dust, or can be carried for thousands of Km’s to be deposited as acidic rain, snow, fog or hail<br />
  11. 11. Air Issues<br />Acid Rain (pg 288) <br />
  12. 12. Air Issues<br />Acidic Deposition<br /> 95,000 of the 700,000 lakes in South Eastern Canada are already classified as “acidic”<br />Estimates by environment Canada (2009) state that half of the acidic precipitation in eastern Canada comes from U.S. industries <br />The U.S. on the other hand claims that it receives 88% of their pollution (in the eastern US) from the Nantocoke generating station near Toronto. <br />
  13. 13. The Ozone Layer<br />Forms the stratosphere and protects us from the suns UV Radiation<br />Human activities are upsetting the balance of this gas<br />In 1983 it was confirmed that there was a whole in ozone (over Antarctica)<br />In 1998 the hole measured 26 million Km’s (roughly the size of Australia)<br />How is it being destroyed?<br />Chloroflouorocarbons (CFCs)- once they rise into the stratosphere, they become exposed to UV radiation and release chlorine atoms<br />A single chlorine atom can destroy thousands of molecules of ozone<br />
  14. 14. Copy to your notes:<br />Acidic Deposition Diagram pg 288<br />Effects of Acidic Deposition Chart pg 290<br />Effects of UV Radiation pg 294<br />What is the Montreal Protocol?<br />
  15. 15. Energy Issues:<br />Energy Use Worldwide:<br />Industrialized Countries<br />Non renewable- 90%<br />Oil- 37%<br />Coal- 25%<br />Natural Gas- 25%<br />Nuclear Power- 5%<br />Renewable- 10%<br />Hydroelectric, solar and geothermal- 7%<br />Biomass- 3%<br />
  16. 16. Energy Issues:<br />Developing Countries<br />Non renewable- 59%<br />Oil -26%<br />Coal- 25%<br />Natural Gas- 7%<br />Nuclear- 1%<br />Renewable- 41%<br />Hydroelectric, solar and geothermal- 6%<br />Biomass- 35%<br />
  17. 17. Energy Issues:<br />Conventional Energy Uses <br />Fuels- materials that are burned to produce heat or power<br />Traditional:<br />Wood<br />Field crops<br />Fecal material<br />Peat (decaying plant matter found in bogs)<br />
  18. 18. Energy Issues:<br />Conventional Energy Uses Continued <br />Fossil Fuels:<br />Coal<br />Petroleum and Natural Gas<br />Migration (crude oil and natural gas migrated sideways and upward from the place of their formation, permeate into sedentary rocks <br />
  19. 19. Energy Issues:<br />Alternative Energy Uses:<br />Solar Energy<br />Passive solar energy<br />Active solar energy<br />Solar cookers<br />Photovoltaic cells <br />Advantages and Disadvantages<br />Hydroelectric Power (water)<br />Energy from Oceans<br />Advantages and Disadvantages<br />
  20. 20. Energy Issues:<br />Alternative Energy Uses Continued <br />Geothermal Energy<br />Advantages and Disadvantages<br />Wind Energy<br />Advantages and Disadvantages<br />Nuclear Energy<br />Advantages and Disadvantages<br />Biomass<br />Biogas<br />Ethanol and Methanol<br />Advantages and Disadvantages<br />
  21. 21. Energy Issues:<br />Alternative Energy Uses Continued <br />Hydricity (hydrogen)<br />Means of storing electricity for future use <br />Hydrogen can be stored and liquefied<br />Helps for us to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels and more like western Europe/ Japan<br />
  22. 22. Hydrocity<br />Advantages<br />Flexibility<br />Reduce oil dependency<br />Reduction of environmental damage = water<br />Disadvantages<br />Replacing current energy infrastructure<br />Will take evolutionary change <br />Cornucopian view for a sustainable future <br />