Youth Resiliency & Mental Health Workshop - Dr. Jean Clinton


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A full day workshop will examine current research and best practices that strengthen youth resiliency and young people's ability to manage mental health issues.

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  • Youth Resiliency & Mental Health Workshop - Dr. Jean Clinton

    1. 1. Resilience in Youth Jean M Clinton B.Mus MD FRCP(C) McMaster University and Children’s Hospital Offord Centre for Child Studies
    2. 3. OUTLINE <ul><li>The Adolescent Brain </li></ul><ul><li>The Prickly Brain </li></ul><ul><li>Resilience </li></ul><ul><li>Asset Building </li></ul>
    3. 4. Kids Today <ul><li>&quot; The children now love luxury; they have bad manners, contempt for authority; they show disrespect for elders and love chatter in place of exercise. Children are now tyrants, not the servants of their households. They no longer rise when elders enter the room. They contradict their parents, chatter before company, gobble up dainties at the table, cross their legs, and tyrannize their teachers.&quot; </li></ul>PLATO
    4. 5. Adolescents: Why DO they do the things they do?
    5. 6. Key Messages <ul><li>‘ UNDER CONSTRUCTION” </li></ul><ul><li>Teens need MORE of our time, not less. </li></ul><ul><li>What we THINK , affects how we FEEL , affects how we ACT (TAF FY) </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of adolescents do well YET </li></ul>
    6. 7. The Paradox <ul><li>Measures of most abilities indicate that adolescence is the healthiest and most resilient period of the lifespan. </li></ul><ul><li>Yet overall morbidity and mortality increases 200-300 times from childhood to late adolescence. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary causes of death and disability related to </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with control of behaviour and emotions </li></ul>
    7. 8. 03-013 The Hostage Brain , Bruce S. McEwen and Harold M. Schmeck, Jr., 1994. THE BRAIN FAIRY
    8. 11. Diamond & Hopson, 1998 “ The nerve cell, or neuron resembles a miniature tree…” (p. 21 )
    9. 12. SYNAPSE
    10. 13. The Three Brains <ul><li>Reptilian Complex (oldest) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homeostatic maintenance body: breathing, digestion, reproduction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fight Flight System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ritualistic and hard to change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limbic System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary center for control of emotion, reward and goal motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate insula… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Neo-cortex (newest) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebral cortex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control -- Regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INHIBITION MACHINE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Down-regulates heightened emotions and urges </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 16. The Frontal Lobes <ul><ul><ul><li>“ Executive Functions” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Governing emotions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Judgment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem Solving </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impulse Inhibition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abstraction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis/synthesis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-awareness* </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-concept* </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spirituality </li></ul></ul></ul>Williamsgroup, 2003: Please credit Protecting You/Protecting Me (PY/PM) * Self- “everything”
    12. 17. Frontal Lobes for Behavioral Control, Birth - 21 Age
    13. 18. The Brain Bonsai Overproduction and Exuberance Pruning
    14. 19. The Fear Response: Fight or Flight and Stress Visual Cortex Visual Thalamus Amygdala Scientific American The Hidden Mind, 2002, Volume 12, Number 1
    15. 20. Amygdala Hippocampus
    16. 21. 03-002 Emotional Stimulus PIT Cortisol Cortisol CRF ACTH Amygdala Hippocampus Adrenal Cortex Hypothalamus PVN + + - - LeDoux, Synaptic Self
    17. 22. Amygdala and Hippocampus
    18. 23. Anterior Cingulate Cortex
    19. 24. Limbic System for Birth - 21 Age Years
    20. 25. What emotion do you see? Deborah Yurgelun Todd McLean Hospital Belmont, Mass (2004)                    
    21. 26. <ul><li>Adolescents use the Amygdala (fight or flight response) rather than the Frontal Cortex (used by older adults) to read emotions </li></ul>Deborah Yurgelun Todd McLean Hospital Belmont, Mass (2004 )
    22. 27. Communication Gap <ul><li>Teens are more likely to misinterpret facial expressions of emotion </li></ul><ul><li>See anger when there isn’t anger </li></ul><ul><li>Process in the amygdala </li></ul><ul><li>May react quickly </li></ul>Deborah Yurgelun Todd McLean Hospital Belmont, Mass (2004)
    23. 28. “ Emotional Brain” Development <ul><li>Emotional brain dominates </li></ul><ul><li>Prefrontal cortex is not ready to take charge </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional brain seeks pleasure, in the form of novelty, excitement, and risk </li></ul>Deborah Yurgelun Todd McLean Hospital Belmont, Mass (2004)
    24. 29. ACC The “Oops Centre ”
    25. 30. The Cognitive Affective Balance Early Adolescence Early Adulthood Ideally! KEY: Not the overall balance that matters, it is the flexibility to shift when needed
    26. 31. SCENARIOS <ul><li>What we THINK…. </li></ul><ul><li>Affects what we FEEL… </li></ul><ul><li>Affects how we ACT…. </li></ul>
    27. 32. From Deficit to Resiliency <ul><li>The Deficit/Risk Model </li></ul><ul><li>Historically, the social and behavioural sciences have followed a problem-focused approach to studying human and social development. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, the helping community has been preoccupied with the deficit or at-risk paradigm for understanding and serving children in trouble and their families. </li></ul>Wayne Hammond :Resiliency Canada 2006
    28. 33. Deficit Thinking <ul><li>Specialty Diagnosis Reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Education Disruptive Reprimand, suspend, expel </li></ul><ul><li>Social Work Dysfunctional Intake, manage, discharge </li></ul><ul><li>Corrections Delinquent Adjudicate, punish, incarcerate </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviourism Disordered Assess, conditioning, time out </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine Diseased Diagnose, drug, hospitalize </li></ul><ul><li>Psychopathology Disturbed Test, treat, restrain </li></ul>Wayne Hammond :Resiliency Canada 2006
    29. 34. <ul><li>To see all individuals as “at promise” rather than “at risk” is a fundamental shift that means facilitating rather than fixing, pointing to health rather than dysfunction, turning away from limiting labels and diagnosis to wholeness and well-being . </li></ul>
    30. 35. <ul><li>“ If we think we are fragile and broken, we will live a fragile, broken life. If we believe we are strong and wise, we will live with enthusiasm and courage. The way we name ourselves colors the way we live. Who we are is in our own eyes. We must be careful how we name ourselves .” </li></ul><ul><li>Wayne Muller </li></ul>
    31. 36. W hat is Resilience? Anne Masten <ul><li>Positive patterns of adaptation in the context of past or present adversity </li></ul><ul><li>Doing OK despite risk or adversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive outcomes from high risk context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recovery from Trauma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overcoming adversity to succeed in life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unexpectedly positive development </li></ul></ul>
    32. 37. MASTEN
    33. 38. MASTEN
    34. 39. MASTEN
    35. 40. MASTEN
    36. 41. MASTEN
    37. 42. MASTEN
    38. 43. MAsten
    39. 44. T he Short list <ul><li>Effective Parenting </li></ul><ul><li>Connections to other caring and competent adults </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving skills </li></ul><ul><li>Self-regulation skills </li></ul><ul><li>+ve self perception </li></ul><ul><li>Life has meaning and hopefulness </li></ul><ul><li>Spirituality </li></ul><ul><li>Talents valued by self or society </li></ul><ul><li>Socioeconomic advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Community effectiveness and safety </li></ul><ul><li>Connections with prosocial and competent peers </li></ul>
    40. 45. Masten
    41. 46. Masten
    42. 47. Masten
    43. 48. Masten
    44. 49. Principles of Resilience <ul><li>Belonging – need to engage and build trust </li></ul><ul><li>Building Capacity – recognize strengths and passion </li></ul><ul><li>Independence – promote ability to creatively draw upon internal and external resources </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose – nurture belief that “my life” has meaning </li></ul>
    45. 50. A Resilience Approach <ul><ul><li>The core of strength-based resilient prevention is paying attention to what works and identifying strengths rather than deficits in the youth . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It focuses on what is important and not just what is urgent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It takes a whole community practicing a strength-based philosophy when working with youth at all levels of implementation of preventative interventions </li></ul></ul>what is
    46. 51. A Resilience Approach <ul><ul><li>Needs to be process and relationship oriented with less dependency on techniques and professionals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strength-based practice is about partnering in order to help youth identify and use their own strengths and resources to overcome obstacles and live empowered lives. </li></ul></ul>
    47. 52. Characteristics of Resilience-Based Practice <ul><li>A focus on language – “Language is not innocent” (Anderson, 1996) </li></ul><ul><li>A focus on story – Stories of self guide how people act, think, feel, and make sense of their past and present lives </li></ul><ul><li>A focus on strengths, abilities, and resources – a firm and committed belief that all people of all ages, and all families possess ability, competence, and other special qualities regardless of their life experience or current situation </li></ul>
    48. 53. Resilience-Based Practice <ul><li>4. A focus on collaboration – acknowledging that people have a view of their current situation, its potential solutions and ideas about how the change process should unfold </li></ul><ul><li>5. A focus on relationship – walking with as opposed to dictating </li></ul>
    49. 54. Critical Components of Change <ul><li>An analysis of 40 years of research found the best predictor of successful change are two factors: </li></ul><ul><li>1) engagement in meaningful relationships </li></ul><ul><li>2) engagement in meaningful activities </li></ul><ul><li>83% of change involves these two factors </li></ul><ul><li>17% is a result of technique </li></ul>
    50. 55. <ul><li>Change does not come from special powers from professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Change happens when a person uses their inherent strengths and resources and are supported by relationships that take your innate goodness as a given </li></ul><ul><li>Change happens when you create a plan that is tailored to the person’s ideas and therefore inspires the hope necessary for action </li></ul>
    51. 56. Effective, Strategic, Prevention <ul><li>Intervene early in cascade to prevent snowballing or co-morbidity </li></ul><ul><li>Promote competence and regulatory capacity, both self and social –regulatory </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease trauma exposure and increase protection for youth in at risk environments </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen scaffolds during periods of change for adolescents </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities, mentors and second chances </li></ul>MASTEN
    52. 57. The Relational Landscape is Changing. Children have fewer social, cognitive and emotional interactions, with fewer people. The impact of “modern life” on the developing child has yet to be fully understood Dr Bruce Perry
    53. 58. Poverty of Relationships <ul><li>The compartmentalization of our culture has resulted has resulted in material wealth yet poverty of social and emotional opportunity </li></ul>Dr Bruce Perry
    54. 59. Vision and Mission of Search Institute <ul><li>Create a world where all children are valued and thrive. </li></ul><ul><li>To provide leadership, knowledge and resources to promote healthy children, youth and communities. </li></ul>
    55. 60. Two Shifts Beyond programs Relationships Second Shift to From fixing young people’s problems First Shift Promoting young people’s strengths to
    56. 61. The Asset-Building Difference <ul><li>Young people’s problems Young people’s strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Professionals’ work Everyone’s work </li></ul><ul><li>Young people absorbing resources Young people as resources </li></ul><ul><li>Programs Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Troubled young people All young people </li></ul><ul><li>Accountable only for own Accountable as well for behavior other adults’ behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Incidental asset building Intentional asset building </li></ul><ul><li>Blaming others Claiming responsibility </li></ul>From To
    57. 62. 3 General Strategies for Promoting Asset Building <ul><li>Build RELATIONSHIPS with children and youth </li></ul><ul><li>Create positive and supportive ENVIRONMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>Connect asset building with programs and practices </li></ul>
    58. 63. THRIVE <ul><li>The Canadian Centre for Positive Youth Development </li></ul><ul><li>1-800-265 2680 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>The Search Institute </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    59. 64. Slides will be available at: