art of the precision request…. A teacher’s BEST tool !Presented by: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
student non-complianceStudent Non-compliance • Reprimand is discipline strategy USA teachers use most often • From elementary to high school, teachers use reprimands far more frequently than any other behavior technique. Presented by: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
Factors affecting compliance Tell - don’t ask !• Do not use a question format when making a request.• Avoid wording your request like this: • “Will you please sit in your desk and begin the assignment • “Don’t you think that it’s time to get started on your work?” • Can you try not to interrupt the lesson for the next 5 minutes?• These are silly questions because our real intention is not to give the student a true choice. • Instead of a question, make a direct statement, something like “please start your assignment”Presented by: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
Factors affectingTell - don’t ask ! compliance Proximity control • Get close to the student when making a request. • The optimal distance is about three feet (arm’s length) • Sensory considerations – but into enough of their space to know you are talking to them directly • Do not make requests from across the room or from behind your desk ! • Requests made from a distance are most likely to be ignored !! Presented by: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
Factors affectingTell - don’t ask ! compliance • Look the student in the eyes when you make a request • You will almost always get eye contact back fromProximity control the student when you are within a few feet of him or her • Whether or not the student gives you eye contact back, move closer until you are within the optimal three feet • Then make your request • Cultural issues • Don’t make eye contact an issue with them – don’t worry about what they do – but make sure you (the teacher) are making eye contact to the student when you are making a request. EyePresented by: Brent Daigle, Ph.D. contact
Factors affectingTell - don’t ask ! compliance Eye contactProximity control • A reasonable amount of time is 5 to 10 seconds • While this may seem like and eternity – DO NOT INTERACT FURTHER WITH THE STUDENT DURING THIS TIME !! • The average adult will interrupt this 5-10second period about 30% of the time, nagging the student by repeating the same request again or by giving machine- gun requests (different, multiple, rapidly fired requests given without waiting for the student to respond to the previous one). • Some students NEED the 5-10second period, uninterrupted, in order to take in the request, make sense of it, and begin to respond. Wait time Presented by: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
Factors affectingTell - don’t ask ! compliance Eye contactProximity control Wait time • Effectiveness is increased by giving well-defined requests and not global ones. • For example, you might say to the class, “ please clear everything off of your desks and the first row line up at the door” instead of “now, let’s all get ready for lunch” Specific Request Presented by: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
Factors affectingTell - don’t ask ! compliance Eye contactProximity control Wait timeSpecific Request Don’t nag • Do not nag or make a request repeatedly • Can’t be stressed enough – just wait after you make your request • Make the request TWICE – then follow through with the preplanned consequence. • System or counting: but no turning back when you finally say “10” – because it is a test • Don’t threaten to call mom unless your cell phone is in your hand and your call them the moment you say “10” Presented by: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
Factors affectingTell - don’t ask ! compliance Eye contactProximity control Wait timeSpecific Request Don’t nagBe calm/Unemotional• Remain call and unemotional (detached) – basically - it is what it is – I made the request – you do what I ask – regardless how you respond, I just want you to comply with my request.• Yelling, threatening gestures, frustrated looks, contemptuous remarks, rough handling, and guilt- inducing statements only serve to reduce your effectiveness and cause you to lose the respect of your students. • How does it lose respect? They see that you cannot remain a leader and in control of the situation• Remember that you are a professional !! (teachers who are not in charge of themselves should not be in charge of students who are not in charge of themselves!)Presented by: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
Factors affectingTell - don’t ask ! compliance Eye contactProximity control Wait timeSpecific Request Don’t nagBe calm/Unemotional• Notice and verbally reinforce (praise) students when they follow through and do as you ask.• Social reinforcement costs nothing and is easy to give.• If you do not recognize and reward compliance, it will decrease over the long term. • I like how you came in on time and followed our morning procedures • I like how you raised your hand to ask a question. Praise compliancePresented by: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
Non-compliance strategy • John wayne adage: “Talk low, talk slow, and don’t say too much.” • This strategy addresses / incorporates all of the factors we just discussed that impact compliance • It combines all of the factors – but then adds a signal word – usually the word NEED, if the request must be made a second time. Precision Requests Presented by: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
Precision requests steps1. Explain strategy • Explain precision requests and their consequences to the students BEFORE actually beginning to use them. Presented by: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
1. Explain strategy Precision requests steps2. non-question format • Make a quiet, direct “please” request in a nonquestion format from within about three feet of the student (approx. arms length away) • Please is a signal word • Signal word- tells listener the direction u want them 2 go.Presented by: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
Precision requests1. Explain strategy steps 2. non-question format3. Wait 5 – 10 seconds • After making the request, wait 5 to 10 seconds. Do not interact or nag (or make the request again) during this time. Just wait. Presented by: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
Precision requests1. Explain strategy steps2. non-question format 3. Wait 5 – 10 seconds4. Reward compliance • If the student does what you have asked (complies), socially reinforce him/her, even if you feel he/she should do it without being told. • Say something like, “hey, I appreciate it when you follow my directions,” or “Good work for doing as I asked” or just give a simple, genuine “thanks” • What are examples of reinforcement for compliance have you seen in this class? Presented by: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
Precision requests1. Explain strategy steps2. non-question format 3. Wait 5 – 10 seconds 4. Reward compliance5. Last chance: NEED • If student does not comply with your 1st request, repeat it and add the signal word NEED. • Need is a signal word because it tells the student that this is the last possible chance to comply. • You are not going to make another request if they don’t do what you ask. • Example: Jackson, now I need you to stay in your seat. • If student (finally) complies -- after need request is made – verbally reinforce him/her for making the right decision. • Signals to student that this is the last possible opportunity to comply Presented by: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
1. Explain strategy Precision requests steps 3. Wait 5 – 10 seconds2. non-question format 4. Reward compliance 5. Consequence6. Consequence• If student (finally) complies -- after need request is made – verbally reinforce him/her for making the right decision.• If they do not do what you ask, follow through with a mild/unpleasant consequence.• What if chart pg 39• Unable to earn points• Teacher calls home• Student calls home• Lose recess minutes• Change seat• Moves away from peers• Moves to buddy teachers room• Private discussion with student• Student behavior contract• Office Referral• Loss of involvement of desired activities in the classroom Presented by: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
Precision requests1. Explain strategy steps 3. Wait 5 – 10 seconds2. non-question format 4. Reward compliance6. Consequence 5. Consequence7. Need request again! • After providing the unpleasant consequence, repeat the original request using the word need. • If the students does as asked, reinforce him or her. If not, follow through with the next unpleasant consequence. • Then return to the need request • ESSENTIAL THAT STUDENT UNDERSTANDS YOU DON’T GIVE UP – THE REQUEST WILL NOT CHANGE! Presented by: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
1. Explain strategy Precision requests steps2. non-question format 3. Wait 5 – 10 seconds 4. Reward compliance6. Consequence 5. Consequence8. Reward compliance• Essential that immediate reinforcement is given when student complies with request.• Ways to reward students • Extra music and reading time • Time for music and dancing • Music while doing school work • Chat break at the end of class • Extra computer time • Free time at the end of class• • Day for watching a movie • Group activity • Games • Homework coupon • Coupon for prizes and privileges• • Certificate/trophy/ribbon/plaque • Gift certificate to local non-food merchants• • Free pass to sporting event or play • Walk break from class • Fun walk with the principal or teacher• • Guest presenter in class • Field trip Elementary students • Taking things to the office• • Taking care of the class pet • Eating with the teacher • Prizes from a treasure box • Pencil toppers• • Stickers • Pencils • Stars or smiley faces • Paperback books • Extra recess• • Leading the class to lunch, recess, library or other adventure