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Why zsh is Cooler than Your Shell

Jaguar Design Studio
January 2013 Cave Lunch
By Brendon Rapp

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Why zsh is Cooler than Your Shell

  1. 1. whyZ shell (zsh)is coolerthanyour shell Brendon Rapp - Cave Lunch #1
  2. 2. whyZ shell (zsh)is coolerthanyour shell(unless your shell is zsh) Brendon Rapp - Cave Lunch #1
  3. 3. (alternate title)she sellsZ shellsby thesea shore
  4. 4. Donald KnuthProfessor Emeritus ofComputer Science atStanfordAuthor of The Art ofComputer Programming"Father of algorithmicanalysis"Creator of TeX
  5. 5. In 1986, Knuth was asked to write a guestfeature for the "Programming Pearls" column inthe Communications of the ACM journal.The task was to write a program that would:read a file of text, determine the n mostfrequently used words, and print out a sortedlist of those words along with their frequencies.
  6. 6. Knuth produced a solution in Pascal that, whenprinted, was about 10 pages in length. It waswell designed, thoroughly commented, andused a novel data structure for managing theword count list.
  7. 7. In response, Doug McIlroy wrote a shell scriptthat produced the same output.
  8. 8. In response, Doug McIlroy wrote a shell scriptthat produced the same output.McIlroys script was six lines long.
  9. 9. Doug McIlroys Shell Scripttr -cs A-Za-z n |tr A-Z a-z |sort |uniq -c |sort -rn |sed ${1}q
  10. 10. A brief history of shells1971: Thompson shell ● Ken Thompson, Bell Labs, first Unix shell ● interactive interpreter, not scripting environment1977: Bourne shell ● scripting language ● Version 7 Unix, PDP-11 ● 1984: The UNIX Programming Environment, Kernighan & Pike ● The shell of commercial Unixes ○ System V, AIX, HP-UX, SCO, Solaris, SunOS ○ Still the default on some of these (that are still alive) ● /bin/sh ○ compatibility mode in modern shells ○ symlink or hard link to compatible shells in modern Unixes
  11. 11. A brief history of shells1978: C shell ● BSD Unix ● More "C-like" scripting syntax (kinda) ● Command history ● Aliasing ● tcsh - newer C shell, default on FreeBSD, and OS X systems 10.0-10.21983: Korn shell ● Bell Labs (AT&T) ● Proprietary until 2000 ● vi and emacs editing modes ● Lots of C shell features ● "middle road" between Bourne and C shell ● pdksh - default on OpenBSD
  12. 12. A brief history of shells1989: Bourne Again shell (bash) ● GNU, GPL ● first legitimate Free shell (/bin/sh compatible) ○ shells like ksh and csh became Free only much later on ● standard shell for Linux distros, Mac OS X 10.3+ ● TAB completion ● extended scripting syntax1990: Z shell ● most closely resembles Korn shell ● /bin/bash compatibility, drop-in replacement for Bash ● "new" (despite being over 20 years old) ● awesome stuff Ill talk about next
  13. 13. Why use zsh?
  14. 14. First, a reason thats kind of lame...
  15. 15. If youre using Mac OS X...
  16. 16. ... your Bash is old!(OS X 10.8.2... and many earlier OS X versions too)
  17. 17. OS X: GPL Wasteland● no GPLv3 on OS X● OS X bash: final version released as GPLv2● Homebrew has latest Bash (but many use situation as an excuse to try zsh instead)
  18. 18. Examples of Actual Zsh Awesomeness
  19. 19. zsh: cd completion
  20. 20. zsh: cd completion
  21. 21. zsh: cd completion
  22. 22. bash: cd completion
  23. 23. bash: cd completion
  24. 24. bash: cd completion
  25. 25. zsh: git completion
  26. 26. zsh: git completion
  27. 27. bash: git completion
  28. 28. bash: git completionIts possible to get completion for git (and many other commands) in Bashby installing bash-completion package, but the completion is stillrudimentary compared to zsh: ● no cycling through options with repeated tabs ● no accompanying info with commands, just a list ● breaks to new prompt line on each tab instead of updating in-placeThere may be ways to improve that situation and bring it more in line withzsh, but with zsh, you get it basically out-of-the-box, with a single commandin your .zshrc to enable completions.
  29. 29. zsh: path expansion (hit TAB, and then...)
  30. 30. zsh: path expansion (... the path is expanded in place, provided there is only one path matching that pattern)
  31. 31. zsh: path expansion (If there isnt only one distinct match for the pattern...)
  32. 32. zsh: path expansion(... the first TAB will expand up until it hits an ambiguity... )
  33. 33. zsh: path expansion (... the next TAB lists the possible matches... )
  34. 34. zsh: path expansion (... then TAB begins cycling through the possibilities... )
  35. 35. zsh: path expansion (... until you get to the one you want, and hit the Right arrow to "select" it ... )
  36. 36. zsh: path expansion (... and then TAB resumes matching through the rest of the path)
  37. 37. bash: path expansion? (hit TAB ... nothing)
  38. 38. zsh: path replacement (Whoops. I meant /usr/local/share)
  39. 39. zsh: path replacement
  40. 40. zsh: path replacement (no more "cd ../../../")
  41. 41. bash: path replacement?
  42. 42. zsh: right promptPROMPT (or PS1): left prompt (like bash)RPROMPT (or RPS1): right prompt!
  43. 43. zsh: right prompt
  44. 44. zsh: spelling correction
  45. 45. zsh: spelling correction
  46. 46. zsh: spelling correction
  47. 47. zsh: aliasesNormal aliases:alias ls=ls --color=auto
  48. 48. zsh: aliasesGlobal aliases - appear anywhere in commandstringalias -g gp=| grep -i% ps ax gp ruby=> ps ax | grep -i ruby
  49. 49. zsh: aliasesSuffix aliases - "Open With..."alias -s rb=vimalias -s log="less -MN"alias -s html=chromium% user.rb=> vim user.rb% development.log=> less -MN development.log% index.html=> chromium index.html
  50. 50. zsh: extended globbingNormal globbed search
  51. 51. zsh: extended globbingExtended globbed search: **/ = recursive
  52. 52. zsh: environment variable editing
  53. 53. zsh: programmable file renaming
  54. 54. zsh-history-substring-searchDown arrow = cycle through command history
  55. 55. zsh-history-substring-searchType part of command and hit up arrow, cycle through onlycommands that begin with that string
  56. 56. zsh-syntax-highlightingHighlights valid commands in green, invalid commands inredSupports shell commands as well as executables in $PATH
  57. 57. oh-my-zsh
  58. 58. Other zsh bullet points● Simple configuration style● Shared history ○ simple & fast, requires some monkeying to replicate in bash● Lots of additions for shell scripting● Output redirection to multiple destinationsAnd, apparently, plenty of other stuff deeper than Ivegotten so far.
  59. 59. The End Go 49ers