INTERPERSONAL ANDINTERPERSONAL AND
COMMUNICATION SKILLCOMMUNICATION SKILL
At the end of the module,
learners should be able identify
the concept of public
EFFECTIVE PUBLIC SPEAKING
At the end of the section, learners
should be able to identify strategies
of effective public speaking.
PREPARING A SPEECH
Identify ways of preparing an effective speech.
Even with sophistication of communication technology today, public
speaking is still one of the most important channels to convey our message
to the audience. We speak in public to inform, to entertain, to influence, the
audience in order to achieve our goals. It is, therefore, important for us to
understand and be able to prepare the good speech. Ask yourself this
question. If you assigned to prepare a speech and at the end of your speech
you should achieve your goals, what are the steps you will take to produce
an effective speech. Let us look at how we can do it.
GENERAL OUTLINE IN PREPARING AN
Usually, we prepared a speech with a general outline, which
comprises of 5 main parts:-
(ii) Thesis sentence
(iii) Body of the speech
(v) References and sources
This outline is basis for any effective speeches. A speech
without proper outline and preparation sometimes termed
as an impromptu speech, where it is difficult and can be
very risky at times.
THE FIRST GENERAL OUTLINE-
Every speech begins with an introduction that takes about 10% of
the time taken for the whole speech. The introduction can be a
brief story, an interesting example or statistic, a quotation, an
illustration or startling remarks or perhaps just a simple rhetoric
question. An example is, “What will happen if water does not exist
anymore on earth?”.
The introduction serves an as audience puller or a method to
capture the attention of the audience who are not really focused
on the speaker at the beginning of the speech.
THE SECOND GENERAL OUTLINE-THESIS
Thesis sentence of thesis statement represent the main idea of the
entire speech. It expresses the central purpose of the speech. To catch
the audience’s attention, a preview or the thesis sentence should always
be mentioned after the introduction is made. It should be simple and
straight to the point. Here are some examples of thesis sentence:
THE THIRD GENERAL OUTLINE- BODY OF
Body of speech consist of 85% of the time use for the whole speech.
The body clarifies, explains, extends, defends and support the thesis
sentence with the help of supporting the materials or references. One
way to enrich a speech presentation is use to a verity of supporting
materials. Example and illustration in the body of speech is useful when
we wish to make an abstract concept and concrete idea. For example,
to illustrate the damaging impact of drug to our lives we may use
illustration such as pictures depicting drug addicts scavenging the
THE FOURTH GENERAL
The fourth part of the outline of speech is the conclusion, which is a
short review of the body of the speech, the thesis sentence and the
introduction. Conclusion must be brief and take about half as long as
the introduction. It is a way to tell the audience that the speaker, is
about to end the speech. Sometimes, conclusion can be in the form or
rhetoric question or statement. For example, we may ask the audience
to think together weather we are going to continue living in this polluted
environment or we can forward it as a form of statement that reflects
expectation or hope.
THE FIFTH GENERAL OUTLINE-REFERENCES
A list of references of sources is needed for the speech
outline as a way to credit the sources of materials we
obtain and to avoid the charge of plagiarism. Plagiarism
means using someone else ideals and words without giving
that person credit. It is an illegal as well as an unethical
In preparing to deliver a speech, you owe your audience and yourself
good presentation, but creating and effective presentation takes
planning and practice. While good text and ideas are important, your
ability to express the ideas and get others to join you is an important.
Among the key points to consider in preparing a speech are: use an
effective introduction, use supporting materials to flesh out main
points, organize your presentation clearly and simply, and create an
Identify effective ways of
presenting a speech
Do quickly jot down two or three ideas
and supporting details about topics.
Do decide on your conclusion.
Do use and develop an introduction.
Don’t apologize for not being prepared for
Don’t reach negatively either verbally or
Pausing too long to recall the words or
Rushing through the speech so as not to
use the words memorized.
Forgetting an important sentence and the
rest of the speech.
Finding it difficult to provide feedbacks for
the ongoing enquiry from the audience.
Losing the benefits of face to face contact.
This speech method can also be called
speaking from the manuscript.
The whole speech is written out and
then read aloud to the audience.
There is no danger of forgetting or
saying the wrong thing because
everything is thought out first.
The word extemporaneous in this
context means 'carefully prepared but
delivered without notes or text'.
MEANING: Although the speaker has
prepared the speech thoroughly, he or
she is not bound by or committed to its
Use simple and accurate language.
Use effective introductions and conclusions.
Adopt natural or conversational approach to
Attend to feedback signals from the
Prepare your speech and rehearse, perhaps
with a friend or in front of a mirror.
There are various ways to deliver a
speech effectively depending on the
situations and our ability to identify
appropriate methods of presenting the
A wrong approach will result in message
not getting across since there are
advantages and disadvantages
associated in each method.
TYPES AND PURPOSES OF INFORMATIVE SPEAKING
OBJECTIVE: At the end of this section, learners
should be able to explain the concept of
Public speaking is a vast field in the area of
communication . In the previous section we looked
at the general principles of public speaking by giving
emphasis on the issues of speech preparation .
Public speaking can be divided into three categories:
Informative speech is a very significant to us as learners
especially in the era of information technology.
Furthermore, with the development of knowledge
economy and the revolution of Information and
Communication Technology, the conveying of
information to others (and ourselves) is crucial in our
CONCEPT OF INFORMATIVE SPEAKING
Informative speaking is a form of speech
with the motive of giving information
to the audience. Informative speeches mainly
describe, define and tell how to use
something or how something works.
Examples of statements in informative
TYPES OF INFORMATIVE SPEECH
In public speaking, the different ways in which we present new
information or engage in new ways of looking at “old” information
can be viewed in terms of the following types of informative
speech. They are:
speech of description
speech of definition and
speech of demonstration
SPEECH OF DESCRIPTION
When we speak to describe, we attempt to
explain event, person, object or process in
the best possible manner.
For example, we may want to speak about
the parts of a personal computer ,the
structure of a building, the map of a
university campus, the day- to-day
activities of a student, or the working of
the human body .
We can do all this by a variety of describing
strategies and the use of appropriate are most
speeches, but it is also possible have an entire
speech that deals with describing events, persons,
objects and/or processes.
SPEECH OF DEFINATION
When we define something, we state the meaning
or the importance concept or term, especially
When we want to explain new or difficult concept
And ideas. Of course, definitions may be found
In any kind speech, but the speech of definition
(or definition speech) is an entire speech that
focuses on explaining the meaning and significance
of a new or unfamiliar concept, or theory. This kind
of speech mostly used in university lecture as the
lecturer explains concepts and theories to students
to make them understand better the subject
In a definitional speech, when speaking to define
something, you as the speaker will have to first state
the meaning of the term or concept in question.
then you will probably need to highlight
similarities and/or differences between this
term and other closely associated or competing
term or set of concept.
Example: you might define the meaning of the
message model of communication in on order to identify
the similarities and differences between them.
Example: Of defining concepts in this, manner is when
you talk about ‘modernism’ versus ‘postmodernism’.
SPEECH OF DEMONSTRATION
Speech of demonstration is used to demonstrate a process or
procedure. When demonstrating something, we usually explain
how certain procedure is being carried out or how something
works (since to demonstrate mean ‘to show’). It is possible, of
course, to give a speech that is solely
concerned with showing how a certain set of
process and procedures is being carried
out, or how something operates.
Examples of demonstration speeches concerning process and
procedures will include how to drive a car, how to lose weight, how
to build an extension to the kitchen, how to cook fish, and so on.
Examples of speeches concerning how something operates will
cover topics such as how to the Internet works, how a
thunderstorm develops, how a blood pressure gauge operates
and how to operate computer.
In conclusion we can say that the overall
function of informative speech is to
communicate information. As mentioned
earlier , the act of informing through speech
can be achieved in several ways:
-speaking to define
-speaking to describe
-speaking to demonstrate
Although they can function as a stand-
alone speech, it is normal to find
elements of each in many of the
speeches that we make
(and listen to) in our day-to day lives.
GENERAL PRINCIPLES &
Learning objective: Identify ways of improving the effectiveness of
Introduction: As there are different categories in public
speaking, there are also specific ways in
improving the effectiveness in the
presentation of each category of speech.
In this topic, we will look at the principles
and strategies of presenting effective
informative speech generally and also
according to types of speech in this
Mr. Soo, a doctor by profession, was invited to give a speech on
the dangers of smoking in a function organized by the Health
Ministry. In his speech he gave a lot of information on the
dangers of smoking and how it affects the health of an
individual. However, many participants who attended the
function complained that they were not able to follow what Mr.
Soo was saying and were confused. This might be because the
way Mr.Soo presented the information in the speech was
complicated and confused the audience.
There are certain principles and guidelines to ensure effective
presentation of your informative speech no matter what type of
speech it is.
There are also certain strategies that you can employ to deliver
an informative speech effectively.
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF INFORMATIVE SPEECH
1. You need to
limit the amount of
can be efficiently
processed by the
2. You should speak
at an appropriate
level of complexity.
3. You as a
4. You as a speaker
should keep a balance
between abstract and
The first principle also called ‘the information load principle’. The
audience will not be able to absorb and process too much
information at one time. Moreover too much information will
confuse the audience especially if the information is technical.
The second principle means, the way you present your speech
should be at the level of your audience. For example, the way
you address a group of students is different from the way you
address a panel of professors.
Example for the third principle is when you give a talk on the
dangers of smoking for students, you should have done prior
audience analysis on the expectations of the audience when you
present your speech.
The fourth principle means, when you speak of a term or concept,
which is abstract, you should give real examples so that audience
will understand on what you are saying. For example, when you
speak about freedom of expression you should also tell your
audience that writing to the press to lodge a complaint or expressing
your dissatisfaction on certain issues is a form of freedom of
STRATEGIES FOR SPEECH OF DESCRIPTION
There are four strategies practiced to ensure effective delivery of
speech of description.
According to Devito (2000, page 366-368), there are four basic
strategies that can improve your ability to deliver effective speech of
definition. They are:
It must be remembered that the purpose of definitional speech is to
add clarity to terms and concepts rather than to confuse people. So,
more often it might be easier to use simple, straightforward
definitions than complex, ‘academic’ ones.
Finally, let us look at the strategies for presenting an effective
speech of demonstration. There are three strategies that aids in
delivering effective speech of demonstration. They are:
Good Presentation Aids:-
~The usage of good presentation aids is important when you
speak to demonstrate how something works and how something
is done. They maybe audio or visual material that help the
audience to understand the demonstration or the instruction.
Overview the process:-
~It is useful that at the beginning of the speech of
demonstration, an overview is given of the whole process that
needs to demonstrated so that the audience can have general
idea about the demonstration before they listen to the specifics
of the processes involved in the demonstration.
Usage of time order:-
~As procedures or steps are involved in a speech of demonstration,
it will be necessary for the speaker to use time order to organize the
speech. For example, the simple sequence of steps will use
sentence markers as ‘First…’ ‘Second…’ and ‘Next…’.
In conclusion, general principles as well as specific strategies of
informative speech ensure effective presentation when you
speak to describe, define, or demonstrate. Furthermore, the
understanding of how to present effective speeches also
includes awareness of the mixed nature of informative speech
types in real-life situations. Lectures, oral reports, oral briefings,
and introductions (of yourself, other people as well as of objects,
events, and concepts) are good examples of this phenomenon.