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  2. 2. OBJECTIVE At the end of the module, learners should be able identify the concept of public communication.
  3. 3. EFFECTIVE PUBLIC SPEAKING OBJECTIVE At the end of the section, learners should be able to identify strategies of effective public speaking.
  4. 4. PREPARING A SPEECH LEARNING OBJECTIVE:  Identify ways of preparing an effective speech. INTRODUCTION:  Even with sophistication of communication technology today, public speaking is still one of the most important channels to convey our message to the audience. We speak in public to inform, to entertain, to influence, the audience in order to achieve our goals. It is, therefore, important for us to understand and be able to prepare the good speech. Ask yourself this question. If you assigned to prepare a speech and at the end of your speech you should achieve your goals, what are the steps you will take to produce an effective speech. Let us look at how we can do it.
  5. 5. GENERAL OUTLINE IN PREPARING AN EFFECTIVE SPEECH  Usually, we prepared a speech with a general outline, which comprises of 5 main parts:- (i) Introduction (ii) Thesis sentence (iii) Body of the speech (iv) Conclusion (v) References and sources  This outline is basis for any effective speeches. A speech without proper outline and preparation sometimes termed as an impromptu speech, where it is difficult and can be very risky at times.
  6. 6. THE FIRST GENERAL OUTLINE- INTRODUCTION  Every speech begins with an introduction that takes about 10% of the time taken for the whole speech. The introduction can be a brief story, an interesting example or statistic, a quotation, an illustration or startling remarks or perhaps just a simple rhetoric question. An example is, “What will happen if water does not exist anymore on earth?”.  The introduction serves an as audience puller or a method to capture the attention of the audience who are not really focused on the speaker at the beginning of the speech.
  7. 7. THE SECOND GENERAL OUTLINE-THESIS SENTENCE  Thesis sentence of thesis statement represent the main idea of the entire speech. It expresses the central purpose of the speech. To catch the audience’s attention, a preview or the thesis sentence should always be mentioned after the introduction is made. It should be simple and straight to the point. Here are some examples of thesis sentence:
  8. 8. THE THIRD GENERAL OUTLINE- BODY OF SPEECH  Body of speech consist of 85% of the time use for the whole speech. The body clarifies, explains, extends, defends and support the thesis sentence with the help of supporting the materials or references. One way to enrich a speech presentation is use to a verity of supporting materials. Example and illustration in the body of speech is useful when we wish to make an abstract concept and concrete idea. For example, to illustrate the damaging impact of drug to our lives we may use illustration such as pictures depicting drug addicts scavenging the garbage.
  9. 9. THE FOURTH GENERAL OUTLINE-CONCLUSION  The fourth part of the outline of speech is the conclusion, which is a short review of the body of the speech, the thesis sentence and the introduction. Conclusion must be brief and take about half as long as the introduction. It is a way to tell the audience that the speaker, is about to end the speech. Sometimes, conclusion can be in the form or rhetoric question or statement. For example, we may ask the audience to think together weather we are going to continue living in this polluted environment or we can forward it as a form of statement that reflects expectation or hope.
  10. 10. THE FIFTH GENERAL OUTLINE-REFERENCES AND SOURCES  A list of references of sources is needed for the speech outline as a way to credit the sources of materials we obtain and to avoid the charge of plagiarism. Plagiarism means using someone else ideals and words without giving that person credit. It is an illegal as well as an unethical practice.
  11. 11. CONCLUSION  In preparing to deliver a speech, you owe your audience and yourself good presentation, but creating and effective presentation takes planning and practice. While good text and ideas are important, your ability to express the ideas and get others to join you is an important. Among the key points to consider in preparing a speech are: use an effective introduction, use supporting materials to flesh out main points, organize your presentation clearly and simply, and create an effective conclusion.
  12. 12. PRESENTING A SPEECH OBJECTIVE: Identify effective ways of presenting a speech
  13. 13. IMPROMPTU SPEECH Do quickly jot down two or three ideas and supporting details about topics. Do decide on your conclusion. Do use and develop an introduction. Don’t apologize for not being prepared for the speech. Don’t reach negatively either verbally or non- verbally.
  14. 14. MEMORIZED SPEECH Pausing too long to recall the words or text. Rushing through the speech so as not to use the words memorized. Forgetting an important sentence and the rest of the speech. Finding it difficult to provide feedbacks for the ongoing enquiry from the audience. Losing the benefits of face to face contact.
  15. 15. READ SPEECH This speech method can also be called speaking from the manuscript.  The whole speech is written out and then read aloud to the audience. There is no danger of forgetting or saying the wrong thing because everything is thought out first.
  16. 16. EXTEMPORANEOUS SPEECH The word extemporaneous in this context means 'carefully prepared but delivered without notes or text'.  MEANING: Although the speaker has prepared the speech thoroughly, he or she is not bound by or committed to its exact wording.
  17. 17. GENERAL GUIDELINES Use simple and accurate language. Use effective introductions and conclusions. Adopt natural or conversational approach to the speech. Attend to feedback signals from the audience. Prepare your speech and rehearse, perhaps with a friend or in front of a mirror.
  18. 18. CONCLUSION There are various ways to deliver a speech effectively depending on the situations and our ability to identify appropriate methods of presenting the speech. A wrong approach will result in message not getting across since there are advantages and disadvantages associated in each method. (BAITI)
  19. 19. TYPES AND PURPOSES OF INFORMATIVE SPEAKING OBJECTIVE: At the end of this section, learners should be able to explain the concept of informative speaking. INTRODUCTION: Public speaking is a vast field in the area of communication . In the previous section we looked at the general principles of public speaking by giving emphasis on the issues of speech preparation .
  20. 20. Public speaking can be divided into three categories: Informative speech Persuasive speech Argumentative speech Informative speech is a very significant to us as learners especially in the era of information technology. Furthermore, with the development of knowledge economy and the revolution of Information and Communication Technology, the conveying of information to others (and ourselves) is crucial in our daily lives.
  21. 21. EXAMPLE:
  22. 22. CONCEPT OF INFORMATIVE SPEAKING  Informative speaking is a form of speech with the motive of giving information to the audience. Informative speeches mainly describe, define and tell how to use something or how something works.  Examples of statements in informative speech are:
  23. 23. TYPES OF INFORMATIVE SPEECH In public speaking, the different ways in which we present new information or engage in new ways of looking at “old” information can be viewed in terms of the following types of informative speech. They are:  speech of description  speech of definition and  speech of demonstration (Devito,2002,page 361)
  24. 24. SPEECH OF DESCRIPTION  When we speak to describe, we attempt to explain event, person, object or process in the best possible manner.  For example, we may want to speak about the parts of a personal computer ,the structure of a building, the map of a university campus, the day- to-day activities of a student, or the working of the human body .  We can do all this by a variety of describing strategies and the use of appropriate are most speeches, but it is also possible have an entire speech that deals with describing events, persons, objects and/or processes.
  25. 25. SPEECH OF DEFINATION When we define something, we state the meaning or the importance concept or term, especially When we want to explain new or difficult concept And ideas. Of course, definitions may be found In any kind speech, but the speech of definition (or definition speech) is an entire speech that focuses on explaining the meaning and significance of a new or unfamiliar concept, or theory. This kind of speech mostly used in university lecture as the lecturer explains concepts and theories to students to make them understand better the subject matter
  26. 26. DEFINING CONCEPTS  In a definitional speech, when speaking to define something, you as the speaker will have to first state the meaning of the term or concept in question. then you will probably need to highlight similarities and/or differences between this term and other closely associated or competing term or set of concept.  Example: you might define the meaning of the message model of communication in on order to identify the similarities and differences between them.  Example: Of defining concepts in this, manner is when you talk about ‘modernism’ versus ‘postmodernism’.
  27. 27. SPEECH OF DEMONSTRATION  Speech of demonstration is used to demonstrate a process or procedure. When demonstrating something, we usually explain how certain procedure is being carried out or how something works (since to demonstrate mean ‘to show’). It is possible, of course, to give a speech that is solely concerned with showing how a certain set of process and procedures is being carried out, or how something operates.
  28. 28.  Examples of demonstration speeches concerning process and procedures will include how to drive a car, how to lose weight, how to build an extension to the kitchen, how to cook fish, and so on.  Examples of speeches concerning how something operates will cover topics such as how to the Internet works, how a thunderstorm develops, how a blood pressure gauge operates and how to operate computer.
  29. 29. CONCLUSION  In conclusion we can say that the overall function of informative speech is to communicate information. As mentioned earlier , the act of informing through speech can be achieved in several ways: -speaking to define -speaking to describe -speaking to demonstrate  Although they can function as a stand- alone speech, it is normal to find elements of each in many of the speeches that we make (and listen to) in our day-to day lives.
  31. 31.  Learning objective: Identify ways of improving the effectiveness of informative speeches.  Introduction: As there are different categories in public speaking, there are also specific ways in improving the effectiveness in the presentation of each category of speech. In this topic, we will look at the principles and strategies of presenting effective informative speech generally and also according to types of speech in this category.
  32. 32.  Mr. Soo, a doctor by profession, was invited to give a speech on the dangers of smoking in a function organized by the Health Ministry. In his speech he gave a lot of information on the dangers of smoking and how it affects the health of an individual. However, many participants who attended the function complained that they were not able to follow what Mr. Soo was saying and were confused. This might be because the way Mr.Soo presented the information in the speech was complicated and confused the audience.
  33. 33.  There are certain principles and guidelines to ensure effective presentation of your informative speech no matter what type of speech it is.  There are also certain strategies that you can employ to deliver an informative speech effectively.
  34. 34. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF INFORMATIVE SPEECH FOUR GENERAL PRINCIPLES 1. You need to limit the amount of information that can be efficiently processed by the audience. 2. You should speak at an appropriate level of complexity. 3. You as a speaker should highlight information that meets the audience’s needs. 4. You as a speaker should keep a balance between abstract and concrete ideas.
  35. 35.  The first principle also called ‘the information load principle’. The audience will not be able to absorb and process too much information at one time. Moreover too much information will confuse the audience especially if the information is technical.  The second principle means, the way you present your speech should be at the level of your audience. For example, the way you address a group of students is different from the way you address a panel of professors.
  36. 36.  Example for the third principle is when you give a talk on the dangers of smoking for students, you should have done prior audience analysis on the expectations of the audience when you present your speech.  The fourth principle means, when you speak of a term or concept, which is abstract, you should give real examples so that audience will understand on what you are saying. For example, when you speak about freedom of expression you should also tell your audience that writing to the press to lodge a complaint or expressing your dissatisfaction on certain issues is a form of freedom of expression.
  37. 37. STRATEGIES FOR SPEECH OF DESCRIPTION  There are four strategies practiced to ensure effective delivery of speech of description.
  38. 38.  According to Devito (2000, page 366-368), there are four basic strategies that can improve your ability to deliver effective speech of definition. They are: It must be remembered that the purpose of definitional speech is to add clarity to terms and concepts rather than to confuse people. So, more often it might be easier to use simple, straightforward definitions than complex, ‘academic’ ones.
  39. 39.  Finally, let us look at the strategies for presenting an effective speech of demonstration. There are three strategies that aids in delivering effective speech of demonstration. They are: Good Presentation Aids:- ~The usage of good presentation aids is important when you speak to demonstrate how something works and how something is done. They maybe audio or visual material that help the audience to understand the demonstration or the instruction. Overview the process:- ~It is useful that at the beginning of the speech of demonstration, an overview is given of the whole process that needs to demonstrated so that the audience can have general idea about the demonstration before they listen to the specifics of the processes involved in the demonstration.
  40. 40. Usage of time order:- ~As procedures or steps are involved in a speech of demonstration, it will be necessary for the speaker to use time order to organize the speech. For example, the simple sequence of steps will use sentence markers as ‘First…’ ‘Second…’ and ‘Next…’.
  41. 41. CONCLUSION  In conclusion, general principles as well as specific strategies of informative speech ensure effective presentation when you speak to describe, define, or demonstrate. Furthermore, the understanding of how to present effective speeches also includes awareness of the mixed nature of informative speech types in real-life situations. Lectures, oral reports, oral briefings, and introductions (of yourself, other people as well as of objects, events, and concepts) are good examples of this phenomenon.