Chapter 3 050213 124207


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Management and Leadership

Chapter 3

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Chapter 3 050213 124207

  1. 1. © Hoy, 2008 Chapter 3 Individuals in Schools: Motivation
  2. 2. © Hoy, 2008 Individuals are motivated by their: 1.Needs 2.Beliefs 3.Goals
  3. 3. © Hoy, 2008 1a. Maslow’s Theory of Needs Assumptions: • Individual needs are universal and arranged in a hierarchy. • Unfilled needs lead individuals to focus on those needs. • Lower-level needs must be satisfied before higher level-needs become strong motivators. Needs: 1. Physiological Needs (Air, Food, Sleep, etc.) 2. Safety and Security Needs (Protection against danger and threat) 3. Belongingness Needs (Belonging to groups, having friends, etc.) 4. Esteem Needs (Self-respect and the respect of others) 5. Self-Actualization Needs (Being all you can me; finding potential)
  4. 4. © Hoy, 2008 1b. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory: Two Types of Needs Assumptions: 1. Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are two separate factors, not opposites. 2. Factors that produce satisfaction are different from those that promote dissatisfaction. •Motivators are generally intrinsic factors such as achievement and the work itself. •Hygiene factors are generally extrinsic factors such as salary and working conditions. 3. Motivators are higher level needs and tend to promote satisfaction. 4. Hygiene factors are lower level needs and tend to promote dissatisfaction
  5. 5. © Hoy, 2008 Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory HygieneHygiene MotivatorsMotivators •Interpersonal relations (with subordinates)Interpersonal relations (with subordinates) •Interpersonal relations (with peers)Interpersonal relations (with peers) •Supervision (technical)Supervision (technical) •Policy and administrationPolicy and administration •Working conditionsWorking conditions •Personal lifePersonal life •AchievementAchievement •RecognitionRecognition •Work itselfWork itself •ResponsibilityResponsibility •AdvancementAdvancement Dissatisfaction Satisfaction
  6. 6. © Hoy, 2008 1c. McClelland’s Achievement-Need Theory Assumptions: 1. The prospect of achievement motivates more than extrinsic rewards. 2. Motives are learned and when people learn to value achievement, it becomes a strong motivator. To instill motivation: • Place people in situation where they can succeed. • Emphasize setting reasonable and achievable goals. • Get people to take responsibility for their actions. • Provide clear and constructive feedback on performance. 3. When achievement motivation is high, then individuals set high, but achievable goals, value and use feedback, have a single-minded absorption with task accomplishment.
  7. 7. © Hoy, 2008 1d. Need for Autonomy 1. Individuals have a need to have a choice in what they do and how they do it; they need to be in charge of their own lives. 2. The need for autonomy is a higher level need--likely above self- esteem and below self actualization in Maslow’s hierarchy.
  8. 8. © Hoy, 2008 2.2. Theories of Motivation: BeliefsTheories of Motivation: Beliefs 2a. Weiner’s Attribution Theory: Beliefs about Cause Assumptions: 1. Individuals naturally seek understandings of why thing happen the way they do. 2. Individuals make causal connections, i.e., they create knowledge. 3. Once knowledge is created, they use it to manage their behavior. 4. The basic causes of achievement are ability, effort, difficulty of the task, and luck. 5. Key questions: • Causal: What are causes of outcomes? • Locus: Is the cause internal (ability & effort) or external (difficulty & luck)? • Stability: Is the cause fixed or does it change? • Responsibility (Controllable): Can I control the cause? 6. Maximize motivation by knowing what causes outcomes, knowing the cause in internal and controllable, and knowing cause is amenable to change.
  9. 9. © Hoy, 2008 Continue… • Ability – Stable view • Ability is uncontrollable and unable to change • Set performance goals that protect their self- esteem – Incremental view • Ability is unstable but controllable • Expanding reservoir of knowledge and skills • Hard work and persistence can pay off • Set performance goals to gauge progress
  10. 10. © Hoy, 2008 2b. Greenberg’s Equity Theory: Beliefs about Fairness Assumptions: 1. Individuals care about being treated fairly. 2. People make social comparisons regarding fair and equitable treatment. 3. Perceived inequity tends to reduce motivation. 4. Individuals attempt to reduce feelings of inequity by: • They try to get increased benefits--get a raise. • They try to leave--quit and find another job. • They reduce their inputs--expend less effort on the job.
  11. 11. © Hoy, 2008 2c. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory (Beliefs about Outcomes) Assumptions: 1. Individuals make conscious decisions about their behavior. 2. People evaluate subjectively the expected value of outcomes. 3. Forces in the individual and environment combine to determine individual values and attitudes. 4. Motivation is a function of the interaction of expectancy, instrumentality, and valence. Expectancy: Can I perform the task? Instrumentality: If I succeed what are the consequences? Valence: How strongly do I value the consequences?
  12. 12. © Hoy, 2008 3.3. Theories of Motivation: GoalsTheories of Motivation: Goals Locke’s Goal Theory Assumptions: 1. If goals are accepted by individuals, they are strong motivators. 2. Why? • Goals focus attention. • Goals mobilize efforts. • Goals enhance persistence. • Goals promote the development of strategies for success. 3. Specific goals are generally more effective than general goals. 4. Difficult, but attainable goals are more effective than easy ones. 5. To be effective, goals must be embraced by individual.
  13. 13. © Hoy, 2008 CharacteristicsCharacteristics ofof Effective GoalsEffective Goals •SpecificSpecific •ChallengingChallenging •AttainableAttainable •EmbracedEmbraced Goal MechanismsGoal Mechanisms •Focus attentionFocus attention •Mobilize effortMobilize effort •Enhance persistenceEnhance persistence •Develop specific taskDevelop specific task strategiesstrategies PerformancePerformance FeedbackFeedback Actual versus Desired Behavior Goal-setting Theory
  14. 14. © Hoy, 2008 Intrinsic motivation comes from such factors as interest and curiosity in the task itself. Extrinsic motivation comes from incentives and disincentives to act, for example, rewards and punishments. The key difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation is the reason for acting--internal (intrinsic) or external (extrinsic). The dichotomy between the two, however, is a bit too simple because what starts as extrinsic motivation (studying to get good grades) may become intrinsic as the individual becomes curious about the learning at hand. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
  15. 15. © Hoy, 2008 Summary & Review Needs Theory Suggest that people work hard when: Lower-order needs are met—physiological, safety, and belongingness needs. Higher-order needs present the challenge—esteem and self-actualization needs. Motivation-Hygiene Theory Suggests that: Unmet lower-level needs produce dissatisfaction with the job. Gratified higher-level needs produce job satisfaction. Goal-Setting Theory Suggests that people work hard when: They have realistic, specific, and challenging goals. They are committed to the goals. They receive feedback about progress toward the goals. Attribution Theory Suggests that people work hard when they believe that causes for success are: Internal—due to ability and effort. Not fixed—effort, for example, can be varied from one situation to another. Controllable—causes can be controlled by hard work, using proper strategy, etc.
  16. 16. © Hoy, 2008 Summary & Review Equity Theory Suggests that people work hard when they have been fairly treated and: They have been given the rewards they deserve. The rewards have been allocated fairly. They have been treated with respect and courtesy. Expectancy Theory Suggests that people work hard when: They believe extra effort will improve performance. Good performance will be noticed and rewarded. The rewards are valued. Self-Efficacy Theory Suggests that people work hard when: They believe they have the capabilities to be successful. They believe that the task is not too difficult. They have had success at completing their tasks. They have good models of success.
  17. 17. Tutorial Activities You have just been hired as a new principal of a small school with 20 teachers. This is your first job as principal and you want to succeed. What goals would you establish for yourself? Write two short-term goals (to be accomplished in the first month on the job) and two long-term goals (to be accomplished during the first year). Describe why you selected those goals and your commitment to them. Make sure the goals are specific, realistic, challenging, and attainable. © Hoy, 2008