COURSENOTES
COURSE TITLE: MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION
COURSE CODE: EPB2033
PREPARED BY: TENGKU NOORAINUN TENGKU...
COURSE: EPB2033: MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION
FACULTY: EDUCATION AND SOCIAL SCIENCES
TOPIC 2: Structure in Schoo...
COURSE: EPB2033: MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION
FACULTY: EDUCATION AND SOCIAL SCIENCES
with the principals at the ...
COURSE: EPB2033: MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION
FACULTY: EDUCATION AND SOCIAL SCIENCES
Other Criticism of Bureaucr...
COURSE: EPB2033: MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION
FACULTY: EDUCATION AND SOCIAL SCIENCES
• As people interact in org...
COURSE: EPB2033: MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION
FACULTY: EDUCATION AND SOCIAL SCIENCES
2.3 Tutorial Activities
2.3...
COURSE: EPB2033: MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION
FACULTY: EDUCATION AND SOCIAL SCIENCES
2.3 Tutorial Activities
2.3...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Chapter 2 050213 124105

369 views

Published on

Management and Leadership

Chapter 2

Published in: Education, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
369
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter 2 050213 124105

  1. 1. COURSENOTES COURSE TITLE: MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION COURSE CODE: EPB2033 PREPARED BY: TENGKU NOORAINUN TENGKU SHAHDAN
  2. 2. COURSE: EPB2033: MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION FACULTY: EDUCATION AND SOCIAL SCIENCES TOPIC 2: Structure in Schools (Textbook Chapter 3) 2.0 Introduction This topic will explain structure in schools and explain five key organizational features of Weberian Model of Bureaucracy. The topic also covers the criticism of the Weberian Model of its dysfunctional consequences. Learners should be able to give example of: (a) bureaucracy; (b) formal organization; (c) informal organization and at the end of this topic, learners should be able to differentiate formal and informal organization. 2.0.1 Overview • The structural element of the school as social system is found in its formal organization. Max Weber (1947) state that the structure of the organization can be defined simply as the sum total of the ways in which it divides its labor into distinct tasks and them achieves coordination among them. 2.1 Key Contents 2.1.1 Weberian Model of Bureaucracy • Almost all modern organizations, including schools, have the characteristics by Weber: division of labor, impersonal orientation, hierarchy of authority, rules and regulations and career orientation. o Division of Labor and Specialization Division of labor and specialization means “the regular activities required for the purposes of the bureaucratically governed structure are distributed in a fixed ways as official duties” (Gerth and Mills, 1946). The tasks in most organizations are too complex to be performed by a single individual; division of labor among positions improves efficiency. In schools, for example, division of labor is primarily for instructional purposes. For example teachers as subspecialties are based on level such as primary and secondary and subject, math, science, and other specialities. Efficiency increases because division of labor produces specialization, which in turn leads to employees who become knowledgeable and expert at performing their prescribed duties. o Impersonal Orientation. Impersonal orientation provide “the dominance of a spirit of formalistic impersonality, without hatred or passion, and hence without affection or enthusiasm”. The bureaucratic employee is expected to make decisions based on facts, not feeling. o Hierarchy of Authority Offices are arranged vertically in bureaucracies; that is, “each lower office is under the control and supervision of a higher one” (Weber, 1947). This is made manifest in the organizational chart, with for example in school Version: 01 Date: 18/03/2011 2
  3. 3. COURSE: EPB2033: MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION FACULTY: EDUCATION AND SOCIAL SCIENCES with the principals at the top and assistant, teachers, and students. The hierarchy of authority attempts to guarantee that the discipline compliance to directives form superiors that is necessary for implementing the various tasks and functions of an organization. o Rules and Regulations Rules and regulations is a “consistent system of abstract rules which have normally been intentionally established. Furthermore, administration of law is held to consist in the application of these rules to particular cases. Rules and regulations are to ensure uniformity and stability of employee action. o Career Orientation Employment in a bureaucratic organization is based on technical qualifications, employees thin of their work as a career. This career maintains, “There is a system of promotion according to seniority, achievement, or both. Promotion is depended on the judgment of superiors.” To foster loyalty to the organization, individuals with special skills must be protected from arbitrary dismissal or denial of promotion. 2.1.2 Criticisms of the Weberian Bureaucratic Model • However, the Weberian model of bureaucracy has been attacked on a number of fronts, as Figure 2.1. First, Weber is criticized for not being attentive to the dysfunctional features of his formulation. Second, the model has been criticised for its neglect of the informal organization. Third, Weber does not deal with the potential internal contradictions among the elements in the model. Finally, feminists denounce the model as gender biased. Figure 2.1 Critique Function and Dysfunctions Weber’s Model Version: 01 Date: 18/03/2011 3 Function • Expertise • Rationality • Compliance and Coordination • Continuity and Stability • Incentive Characteristic • Division of labor • Impersonal Orientation • Hierarchy of Authority • Rules and Regulation • Impersonal Orientation Dysfunctions • Boredom • Lack of Moral • Communication Block • Rigidity and Goal Displacement • Conflict between
  4. 4. COURSE: EPB2033: MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION FACULTY: EDUCATION AND SOCIAL SCIENCES Other Criticism of Bureaucracy o Dual structure Critiques Talcott Parsons (1947) and Gouldner (1954) question whether the guiding principle of bureaucracy is authority based on technical competence and knowledge or authority based on legal powers and discipline. Unless one assumes that there will be no conflict between authority based on “technical competence and expertise” and that based on “incumbency in a hierarchical position”. Dual criticised and concluded that Weber failed to distinguish bureaucratic from professional principles. o A Feminist Critiques. Feminist are often critical of bureaucratic organizations in fundamental ways, the common accusation that qualified women in modern organizations do not receive equal treatment or compensation. Women often lack equal access to training programs. Feminist also argue that bureaucratic structures perpetuate systems of male domination. Concentrated more or give priority to masculine virtues and values. This is refer to male characteristics of independence, rationality, and competitiveness are dominant instrumental features of bureaucracy, whereas the more feminine features of dependence, emotionality, and cooperation are subordinate properties of organizations. 2.2 Formal and Informal Organization • Formal organization is where established to achieve certain goals. Formal organizations as social systems must solve the basic problems of adaptation, goal achievement, integration, and latency if they are to survive and prosper. The formal organization selects a few general bureaucratic expectations that are reasonably consistent with the organization’s goal. These expectations often are formalized, codified, and adopted as official rules and regulations of the organization. • Schools are formal organizations with many of the same characteristics as bureaucratic organizations. “The school organization as we know it today...can accurately is described as a highly developed bureaucracy. As such, it exhibits many of the characteristics and employees many of the strategies of the military, industrial, and governmental agencies with which it might be compare.” • Informal organization is unofficial social structure that emerges within the formal organization that has informal leaders as well as informal norms, values, sentiments, and communication patterns. It is a system of interpersonal relations that forms spontaneously within all formal organizations; it is a system that is not included in the organizational. It is the natural ordering structuring that evolves from the needs of participants as they interact in their workplace; it includes informal structure, informal norms, and informal patterns of leadership (Scott, 1992). Version: 01 Date: 18/03/2011 4
  5. 5. COURSE: EPB2033: MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION FACULTY: EDUCATION AND SOCIAL SCIENCES • As people interact in organizations, networks of informal relations emerge that have important effects on behaviour. Official as well as unofficial roles, norms, values, and leaders all shape individual behaviour. People talk to each other about personal and social issues. As a consequence, some individuals are liked, others disliked, Figure 2.2. • Informal organization also can promote cohesion. Patterns of social relationships usually emphasize friendliness, cooperation, and preservation of the group. Informal groups emerge spontaneously and are built on shared interests and friendships. They arise from such simple events as common classroom areas, liking certain colleagues, shared lunch hours, car pools, same planning periods, and other activities. Figure 2.2 Elements of the Formal and Informal Organization Version: 01 Date: 18/03/2011 5
  6. 6. COURSE: EPB2033: MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION FACULTY: EDUCATION AND SOCIAL SCIENCES 2.3 Tutorial Activities 2.3.1 Activity 1 • Who are the informal leaders in your school? Why are these people leaders? How well do they get along with the principal? Describe the grapevine in your school. What are the significant cliques? How do the cliques get along? How would you describe the informal organization of your school? Where do you fit into the informal organization? 2.4 REFERENCES Wayne K. H, & Cecil G. M. (2008). Educational Administration: Theory, Research, and Practice. Eight Edition -International Edition. New York: McGraw – Hill Companies. Version: 01 Date: 18/03/2011 6
  7. 7. COURSE: EPB2033: MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION FACULTY: EDUCATION AND SOCIAL SCIENCES 2.3 Tutorial Activities 2.3.1 Activity 1 • Who are the informal leaders in your school? Why are these people leaders? How well do they get along with the principal? Describe the grapevine in your school. What are the significant cliques? How do the cliques get along? How would you describe the informal organization of your school? Where do you fit into the informal organization? 2.4 REFERENCES Wayne K. H, & Cecil G. M. (2008). Educational Administration: Theory, Research, and Practice. Eight Edition -International Edition. New York: McGraw – Hill Companies. Version: 01 Date: 18/03/2011 6

×