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  1. 1. Gaming as A Teaching Strategy for Nursing Nursing 622 Brenda Pomerenke
  2. 2. The History of Games <ul><li>Childhood games </li></ul><ul><li>Serious games </li></ul><ul><li>Games as a teaching strategy </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is gaming? <ul><li>A learning format that involves competition, rules, collaboration of team members, and competition. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Objective #1 <ul><li>Students will achieve a higher score on a post test than what they scored on their pretest after using gaming as a learning strategy. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Rationale <ul><li>Adult learners prefer active involvement and is the way that they learn best (Royce and Newton, 2007; LeCroy, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Students remember 10% of what is read, 20% of what is heard, 30% of what is demonstrated, and 90% when what is said and done is combined (Kennedy, 2006) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Objective #2 <ul><li>Students will self report that motivation was increased with the use of games to learn difficult concepts and reinforce what they have learned. Motivation will be measured by student evaluation at completion of course. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Rationale <ul><li>Games build on motivation and problem based learning. Educational games are methods by which students can become directly involved in making decisions. Interactive games can be memorable and stimulate motivation. (Sward,, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Games keep students from getting bored, generate enthusiasm, and stimulate thought processes.” (Royse and Newton, 2007) </li></ul>
  8. 8. There are many types of learners! <ul><li>Some learn best by watching, some by listening, and some by doing. </li></ul><ul><li>A variety of teaching techniques are needed to accommodate all the different learning styles. </li></ul><ul><li>(Kennedy, 2006) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Advantages <ul><li>Active participation </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration in groups </li></ul><ul><li>Decreases stress </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Fun and exciting </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Increases retention </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes teamwork </li></ul>(LeCroy, 2006)
  10. 10. Disadvantages <ul><li>Possible embarrassment </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to evaluate individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Costs to develop or purchase </li></ul><ul><li>Time consuming to prepare </li></ul><ul><li>Fitting it into the time available </li></ul>(LeCroy, 2006)
  11. 11. Implementation Issues <ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>many free templates and web-based games. </li></ul><ul><li>purchase games ranging from a few dollars to hundreds of dollars. </li></ul><ul><li>instructor time to create your own </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>access to a computer and internet connection </li></ul><ul><li>In class games can be online, board, or paper and pencil. </li></ul><ul><li>Student disability </li></ul><ul><li>IT support </li></ul>
  12. 12. How to assess quality <ul><li>Questionnaire by students </li></ul><ul><li>Pretests and posttests </li></ul><ul><li>Debriefing </li></ul>
  13. 13. Clinical based research <ul><li>Puerperal women learn about breastfeeding and newborn care through a board game. Correct answers increased from 17% to 78%. (Bochennek et al, 2007 referenced Fonseca et al. 2000, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>A clinic developed a trivia game to teach peritoneal dialysis to its patients and their family members. Participants answered a survey about the teaching strategy. They concluded that this is an effective way to teach about this topic. (Kennedy, 2006) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Staff education <ul><li>A rural Midwest hospital implemented a game based learning activity to address knowledge deficits in medication administration and high med error rate. After this fun intervention it was determined that this was a successful method to use for education and they did not receive one medication error report for the last half of the year. (Ward and Koerner, 2008) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Education <ul><li>Ward et al (2008) reported on a study that compared web based gaming strategy with self study computerized flash card use. Results were similar, but students continued to play the game. This study adds to the literature that games can be an enjoyable and motivating teaching method. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Nursing education <ul><li>A study was done be Cowan and Tesch (Royse and Newton, 2007) where the control groups was taught the content with traditional methods, the treatment group was taught the same way, but also played a game. Pretest scores did not differ between the two groups, but post test scores were 85% versus 94% correct for the treatment group. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Teaching ethics <ul><li>Study focused on development of cultural awareness using games. They found that the participation helped them learn ways of relating to each other. (Graham and Richardson, 2008) </li></ul>
  18. 18. How to use gaming <ul><li>Assess your needs </li></ul><ul><li>Search for what is already available </li></ul><ul><li>Determine if you have the proper equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Test the game before using it </li></ul><ul><li>Have clear, easy rules </li></ul><ul><li>Have fun </li></ul>
  19. 19. Educator’s aim is that his teaching results in learning!
  20. 20. References <ul><li>Bochennek, K., Wittekindt, B., Zimmermann, S.Y., Klingebiel, T. (2007). More than mere games: a review of card and board games for medical education. Medical Teacher, 29, 941-948. Retrieved June 17, 2009 from </li></ul><ul><li>Bradshaw, M.J. & Lowenstein A. J. (2007). Innovative teaching strategies in nursing and related health professions (4 th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett. </li></ul><ul><li>Graham, I. &Richardson, E. (2008). Experiential gaming to facilitate cultural awareness: its implication for developing emotional caring in nursing. Retrieved June 17, 2009 from </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy, L. (2006). PD trivia: making learning fun. CANNT Journal, 16, 46-48. Retrieved June 17, 2009 from </li></ul><ul><li>LeCroy, C. (2006). Games as an innovative teaching strategy for overactive bladder and bph. Urologic Nursing, 26, 381-384. Retrieved June 17, 2009 from </li></ul><ul><li>Royse, M.A. & Newton, S.E. (2007). How gaming is used as an innovative strategy for nursing education. Nursing Education Perspectives, 28, 263-267. Retrieved June 17, 2009 from </li></ul>
  21. 21. References continued <ul><li>Skiba, D.J. (2008). Nursing education 2.0: games as pedagogical platforms. Nursing Education Perspectives , 29, 174-175. Retrieved June 17, 2009 from </li></ul><ul><li>Sward, K.A., Richardson, S., Kendrick, J., Maloney, C. (2008). Use of a web- based game to teach pediatric content to medical students. Ambulatory Pediatrics, 8, 354-359. Retrieved June 17, 2009 from </li></ul><ul><li>Ulrich, D. & Glendon,K. (2005). Using games as a teaching strategy. Journal of Nursing Education, 44, 338-339. Retrieved June 17, 2009 from </li></ul><ul><li>Ward, K.R. & Koerner, D.K. (2008). Sink or swim: the titanic mediation administration fair. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 39, 179-184. Retrieved June 17, 2009 from </li></ul><ul><li>White, G.B. & Davis, A.J. (1987). Teaching ethics using games. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 12, 621-624. Retrieved June 17, 2009 from </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>