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BPF Tools 2017

Slides from a discussion at the IOVisor workshop in Feb 2017, about BPF performance and observability tools.

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Brendan Gregg
Senior Performance Architect
27 Feb 2017
image:	h)p://makeitstranger.com
Observability
Best Possible Performance
&
Root Cause Analysis
Needed:
Observe Everything
In Production
Quickly
BPF Tools 2017
Enhanced BPF is in Linux

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BPF Tools 2017

  • 1. Brendan Gregg Senior Performance Architect 27 Feb 2017 image: h)p://makeitstranger.com
  • 6. Enhanced BPF is in Linux
  • 8. How do we use these superpowers?
  • 9. Off-CPU Analysis Thread State Analysis e.t.c. Pose Q's for tools to A Methodologies
  • 11. bcc: BPF Compiler Collection https://github.com/iovisor/bcc
  • 14. Single purpose vs Multi-tools # opensnoop PID COMM FD ERR PATH 10085 sshd 3 0 /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libresolv.so.2 10085 sshd 3 0 /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libgpg-error.so.0 10085 sshd 3 0 /dev/urandom 10085 sshd -1 2 /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/.libcrypto.so.1.0.0.hmac 10085 sshd -1 2 /proc/sys/crypto/fips_enabled # trace 'do_sys_open "%s", arg2' 'r::do_sys_open "ret:%d", retval' PID TID COMM FUNC - 1651 1651 redis-server do_sys_open /proc/1651/stat 1968 1968 redis-server do_sys_open /proc/1968/stat 1651 1651 redis-server do_sys_open ret:5 1968 1968 redis-server do_sys_open ret:5 2218 2218 snmp-pass do_sys_open /proc/cpuinfo 2218 2218 snmp-pass do_sys_open ret:4 2218 2218 snmp-pass do_sys_open /proc/stat 2218 2218 snmp-pass do_sys_open ret:4
  • 15. Single purpose tool usage # biolatency -h usage: biolatency [-h] [-T] [-Q] [-m] [-D] [interval] [count] Summarize block device I/O latency as a histogram positional arguments: interval output interval, in seconds count number of outputs optional arguments: -h, --help show this help message and exit -T, --timestamp include timestamp on output -Q, --queued include OS queued time in I/O time -m, --milliseconds millisecond histogram -D, --disks print a histogram per disk device examples: ./biolatency # summarize block I/O latency as a histogram [...]
  • 17. Template 1: Per Event Output # opensnoop PID COMM FD ERR PATH 10085 sshd 3 0 /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libkeyutils.so.1 10085 sshd 3 0 /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libresolv.so.2 10085 sshd 3 0 /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libgpg-error.so.0 10085 sshd 3 0 /dev/urandom 10085 sshd -1 2 /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/.libcrypto.so.1.0.0.hmac 10085 sshd -1 2 /proc/sys/crypto/fips_enabled 10085 sshd 3 0 /proc/filesystems 10085 sshd 3 0 /dev/null 10085 sshd 3 0 /proc/10085/fd 10085 sshd 3 0 /usr/lib/ssl/openssl.cnf 10085 sshd 3 0 /etc/gai.conf 10085 sshd 3 0 /etc/nsswitch.conf 10085 sshd 3 0 /etc/ld.so.cache 10085 sshd 3 0 /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libnss_compat.so.2 10085 sshd 3 0 /etc/ld.so.cache 10085 sshd 3 0 /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libnss_nis.so.2 […]
  • 18. Template 2: Filtered Event Output # ext4slower 1 Tracing ext4 operations slower than 1 ms TIME COMM PID T BYTES OFF_KB LAT(ms) FILENAME 06:49:17 bash 3616 R 128 0 7.75 cksum 06:49:17 cksum 3616 R 39552 0 1.34 [ 06:49:17 cksum 3616 R 96 0 5.36 2to3-2.7 06:49:17 cksum 3616 R 96 0 14.94 2to3-3.4 06:49:17 cksum 3616 R 10320 0 6.82 411toppm 06:49:17 cksum 3616 R 65536 0 4.01 a2p 06:49:17 cksum 3616 R 55400 0 8.77 ab 06:49:17 cksum 3616 R 36792 0 16.34 aclocal-1.14 06:49:17 cksum 3616 R 15008 0 19.31 acpi_listen 06:49:17 cksum 3616 R 6123 0 17.23 add-apt-repository 06:49:17 cksum 3616 R 6280 0 18.40 addpart 06:49:17 cksum 3616 R 27696 0 2.16 addr2line 06:49:17 cksum 3616 R 58080 0 10.11 ag 06:49:17 cksum 3616 R 906 0 6.30 ec2-meta-data 06:49:17 cksum 3616 R 6320 0 10.00 animate.im6 […]
  • 19. Template 3: Interval Summary # dcstat TIME REFS/s SLOW/s MISS/s HIT% 08:11:47: 2059 141 97 95.29 08:11:48: 79974 151 106 99.87 08:11:49: 192874 146 102 99.95 08:11:50: 2051 144 100 95.12 08:11:51: 73373 17239 17194 76.57 08:11:52: 54685 25431 25387 53.58 08:11:53: 18127 8182 8137 55.12 08:11:54: 22517 10345 10301 54.25 08:11:55: 7524 2881 2836 62.31 08:11:56: 2067 141 97 95.31 08:11:57: 2115 145 101 95.22 […]
  • 20. Template 4: Count Summary # funccount 'vfs_*' Tracing... Ctrl-C to end. ^C ADDR FUNC COUNT ffffffff811efe81 vfs_create 1 ffffffff811f24a1 vfs_rename 1 ffffffff81215191 vfs_fsync_range 2 ffffffff81231df1 vfs_lock_file 30 ffffffff811e8dd1 vfs_fstatat 152 ffffffff811e8d71 vfs_fstat 154 ffffffff811e4381 vfs_write 166 ffffffff811e8c71 vfs_getattr_nosec 262 ffffffff811e8d41 vfs_getattr 262 ffffffff811e3221 vfs_open 264 ffffffff811e4251 vfs_read 470 Detaching...
  • 21. Template 5: Histogram Summary # biolatency Tracing block device I/O... Hit Ctrl-C to end. ^C usecs : count distribution 4 -> 7 : 0 | | 8 -> 15 : 0 | | 16 -> 31 : 0 | | 32 -> 63 : 0 | | 64 -> 127 : 1 | | 128 -> 255 : 12 |******** | 256 -> 511 : 15 |********** | 512 -> 1023 : 43 |******************************* | 1024 -> 2047 : 52 |**************************************| 2048 -> 4095 : 47 |********************************** | 4096 -> 8191 : 52 |**************************************| 8192 -> 16383 : 36 |************************** | 16384 -> 32767 : 15 |********** | 32768 -> 65535 : 2 |* | 65536 -> 131071 : 2 |* |
  • 23. Template 7: Folded stack output for flame graphs offcputime -f offwaketime -f wakeuptime -f profile -f | flamegraph.pl > out.svg
  • 24. Valuable Know what already exists and what doesn't
  • 26. Concise, intuitive self-explanatory # iolatency Tracing block I/O. Output every 1 seconds. Ctrl-C to end. >=(ms) .. <(ms) : I/O |Distribution | 0 -> 1 : 4381 |######################################| 1 -> 2 : 9 |# | 2 -> 4 : 5 |# | 4 -> 8 : 0 | | 8 -> 16 : 1 |# | […]
  • 27. # ./biolatency -h usage: biolatency [-h] [-T] [-Q] [-m] [-D] [interval] [count] Summarize block device I/O latency as a histogram positional arguments: interval output interval, in seconds count number of outputs optional arguments: -h, --help show this help message and exit -T, --timestamp include timestamp on output -Q, --queued include OS queued time in I/O time -m, --milliseconds millisecond histogram -D, --disks print a histogram per disk device examples: ./biolatency # summarize block I/O latency as a histogram ./biolatency 1 10 # print 1 second summaries, 10 times ./biolatency -mT 1 # 1s summaries, milliseconds, and timestamps ./biolatency -Q # include OS queued time in I/O time ./biolatency -D # show each disk device separately .POSIX-style. arguments
  • 28. Op>on Alternate Expecta>on -a --all all events -c CMD --cmd … run this command -d SECONDS --duraAon … duraAon of tool execuAon -h --help help -i FILE --input … input file -i SECONDS --interval … summary interval -n name --name … this process name only -o FILE --output … output file -p PID --pid … this process ID only -P --by-process per-process ID breakdown -P PORT --port … this TCP port only -t or -T --[no]Amestamp include or exclude Amestamps -v --verbose verbose output -x --extended, --errors extended output, or only failures [interval [count]] - summary interval, and # of outputs
  • 29. Tested If you can't write the workload, you can't write the tool
  • 31. State of BPF, Feb 2017 1.  Dynamic tracing, kernel-level (BPF support for kprobes) 2.  Dynamic tracing, user-level (BPF support for uprobes) 3.  StaAc tracing, kernel-level (BPF support for tracepoints) 4.  Timed sampling events (BPF with perf_event_open) 5.  PMC events (BPF with perf_event_open) 6.  Filtering (via BPF programs) 7.  Debug output (bpf_trace_printk()) 8.  Per-event output (bpf_perf_event_output()) 9.  Basic variables (global & per-thread variables, via BPF maps) 10.  AssociaAve arrays (via BPF maps) 11.  Frequency counAng (via BPF maps) 12.  Histograms (power-of-2, linear, and custom, via BPF maps) 13.  Timestamps and Ame deltas (bpf_kAme_get_() and BPF) 14.  Stack traces, kernel (BPF stackmap) 15.  Stack traces, user (BPF stackmap) 16.  Overwrite ring buffers 17.  String factory (stringmap) 18.  OpAonal: bounded loops, < and <=, … 1.  StaAc tracing, user-level (USDT probes via uprobes) 2.  StaAc tracing, dynamic USDT (needs library support) 3.  Debug output (Python with BPF.trace_pipe() and BPF.trace_fields()) 4.  Per-event output (BPF_PERF_OUTPUT macro and BPF.open_perf_buffer()) 5.  Interval output (BPF.get_table() and table.clear()) 6.  Histogram prinAng (table.print_log2_hist()) 7.  C struct navigaAon, kernel-level (maps to bpf_probe_read()) 8.  Symbol resoluAon, kernel-level (ksym(), ksymaddr()) 9.  Symbol resoluAon, user-level (usymaddr()) 10.  BPF tracepoint support (via TRACEPOINT_PROBE) 11.  BPF stack trace support (incl. walk method for stack frames) 12.  Examples (under /examples) 13.  Many tools (/tools) 14.  Tutorials (/docs/tutorial*.md) 15.  Reference guide (/docs/reference_guide.md) 16.  Open issues: (h)ps://github.com/iovisor/bcc/issues) State of bcc, Feb 2017 done not yet
  • 32. Dynamic tracing stability need those smoke tests switch tools to static tracepoints
  • 39. Visualizations and GUIs Flame Graphs Tracing Reports … Eg, Nejlix self-service UI:
  • 40. Ancient Linux Linux 3.18 Linux 3.10 Linux 3.2 Linux 2.6.x
  • 42. Finish porting my old DTrace tools
  • 43. Links & References iovisor bcc: •  https://github.com/iovisor/bcc •  https://github.com/iovisor/bcc/tree/master/docs •  http://www.brendangregg.com/blog/ (search for "bcc") •  http://blogs.microsoft.co.il/sasha/2016/02/14/two-new-ebpf-tools-memleak-and-argdist/ •  I'll change your view of Linux tracing: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GsMs3n8CB6g •  On designing tracing tools: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uibLwoVKjec BPF: •  https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/networking/filter.txt •  https://github.com/iovisor/bpf-docs •  https://suchakra.wordpress.com/tag/bpf/ Flame Graphs: •  http://www.brendangregg.com/flamegraphs.html •  http://www.brendangregg.com/blog/2016-01-20/ebpf-offcpu-flame-graph.html •  http://www.brendangregg.com/blog/2016-02-01/linux-wakeup-offwake-profiling.html Linux Performance: http://www.brendangregg.com/linuxperf.html
  • 44. Thanks Discussion? iovisor bcc: https://github.com/iovisor/bcc http://www.brendangregg.com http://slideshare.net/brendangregg bgregg@netflix.com @brendangregg Thanks to Alexei Starovoitov (Facebook), Brenden Blanco (PLUMgrid/VMware), Sasha Goldshtein (Sela), Daniel Borkmann (Cisco), Wang Nan (Huawei), and other BPF and bcc contributors!