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General brain function: Action – Outcome Evaluation

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My presentation for the brain and behavior symposium entitled "Brain, Cognition, Behavior, Evolution: Polyglot to Monoglot?" organized by Jerry Hogan at the Institute of advanced studies of the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

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General brain function: Action – Outcome Evaluation

  1. 1. Björn Brembs http://brembs.net Universität Regensburg
  2. 2. What is a brain good for, anyway?
  3. 3. What is behavior? “The whole neural organism, it will be remembered, is, physiologically considered, but a machine for converting stimuli into reactions” (James, 1890, p. 372). Behavior: An analysis of the world, followed by deliberation and planning, followed by execution of the plan. “sense, think, act” motor output sensory input ReactionPerception representation of the world Cognition representation of the motor plan William James Source: Paul Cisek
  4. 4. Source: Ken Catania
  5. 5. Reproducibility is not evolutionary stable
  6. 6. H. geographicus Variability in jumping Royan et al., 2010 M. trinitatis
  7. 7. Ongoing activity modulated by stimuli
  8. 8. Phototaxis: Gáspár Jékely Polychaete: Platynereis dumerilii Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology
  9. 9. Pelagic Benthic LIGHT PRESSURE GRAVITY CHEMICALS TEMPERATURE SALINITY
  10. 10. G Jékely et al. Nature 456, 395-399 (2008) doi:10.1038/nature07590
  11. 11. G Jékely et al. Nature 456, 395-399 (2008) doi:10.1038/nature07590
  12. 12. a-FVRIamide a-acTub
  13. 13. Ongoing activity modulated by stimuli
  14. 14. Cornelia Bargmann 302 neurons, connectome Gordus et al. 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2015.02.018
  15. 15. Gordus et al. 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2015.02.018
  16. 16. Ongoing activity modulated by stimuli
  17. 17. Marcus Raichle fMRI
  18. 18. The limiting factor in the evolution of brain size was energy supply 35
  19. 19. 36 The additional energy burden associated with […] the environment may be as little as .5-1.0% of the total energy budget. Marcus Raichle (2006): Science 314, p1249
  20. 20. Ongoing activity modulated by stimuli
  21. 21. =
  22. 22. Jonathan Wolpaw
  23. 23. Wolpaw TINS (1997) + later data
  24. 24. Wolpaw et al, 1984&94; Carp et al, 2006; Wolf et al, 1995
  25. 25. Action – Outcome Evaluation
  26. 26. Under carefully controlled experimental circumstances, an animal will behave as it damn well pleases.
  27. 27. Behavioral variability in a constant stimulus situation: Actions, not responses
  28. 28. Decisions or just noise in complex stimulus-response systems?
  29. 29. Geometric Random Inner Products: GRIP All computations Alexander Maye, UKE Hamburg (Maye et al. 2007)
  30. 30. Maye et al. (2007) If one simple stochastic point process is insufficient, maybe we need more…
  31. 31. Source: This is Spinal Tap
  32. 32. Torque HeatColors operant classical self world
  33. 33. > 530 Mya CREB CRE Long- term memory cAMP PKA Cytoplasm Nucleus Nt DNA rutabaga Modified from: "Comparative psychology: Evolution and development of behavior" (2nd Edition, Psychology Press, 2008)
  34. 34. Brembs & Plendl (2008) Torque HeatColors Torque Heat rut-AC dependent Synaptic Plasticity Protein Kinase C world self rut2080 wtb rut2080 wtb HS noHS PKCi PKCi HS noHS PKCi PKCi
  35. 35. Action – Outcome Evaluation FoxP2
  36. 36. Torque HeatColors Torque Heat world self self WT FoxP RNAi ctrl.
  37. 37. > 530 Mya Aplysia (Mollusks) Drosophila (Arthropods) Humans/mice/birds (Chordates) ??? cAMP PKA Cytoplasm Nucleus Nt DNA Type II cyclase PKC FoxP
  38. 38. Why have more than one learning system?
  39. 39. Training Test composite: turning + color turning
  40. 40. Training Test composite: turning + color turning WT WT 16min MB Impaired OK OK Self-Learning Test
  41. 41. Training Test composite: turning + color turning color WT WT 16min MB Impaired OK OK Self-Learning Test WT WT 16min MB OK Impaired Impaired World-Learning Test
  42. 42. Training Test composite: turning + color turning color WT 8min WT 16min MB Impaired OK OK Self-Learning Test WT 8min WT 16min MB OK Impaired Impaired World-Learning Test habit formation
  43. 43. Training Test composite: turning + color turning color WT 8min WT 16min FoxP 16min Impaired OK Impaired Self-Learning Test WT 8min WT 16min MB OK Impaired Impaired World-Learning Test
  44. 44. Training Test composite: turning + color turning color WT 8min WT 16min MB 8min Impaired OK OK Self-Learning Test WT 8min WT 16min MB 8min OK Impaired Impaired World-Learning Test Brembs, 2009 MB247 or 17D driving TNT
  45. 45. Brembs (2009) Curr Biol Colomb & Brembs (2010) Commun Integr Biol Brembs (2010) Proc Roy Soc Brembs (2011) Behav Proc
  46. 46. Spontaneous Activity independent of sensory input e.g. exploration Mixed Complex stimuli/variable actions Behavioral set Endogenous evoked responses Closed loop Evoked Fixed stimulus/response at fixed latency e.g. reflex Stimulus-response coupling Predictability
  47. 47. Spontaneous Activity independent of sensory input e.g. exploration Mixed Complex stimuli/variable actions Behavioral set Endogenous evoked responses Closed loop Evoked Fixed stimulus/response at fixed latency e.g. reflex Stimulus-response coupling Predictability/Efficiency
  48. 48. Flexibility Efficiency
  49. 49. Exploration Exploitation
  50. 50. Goal-directed Habitual

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