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Powerpoint of expertise


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Powerpoint of expertise

  1. 1. ELL Dropouts: Exploring Misconceptions, Realities, and Solutions to a Detrimental Educational Problem <br />Holly Callan<br />
  2. 2. By the end of this presentation, the student will be able to (SWBAT)…<br />Discuss common misconceptions of ELL dropouts and subsequently counter these misconceptions with information on the reality of the subject<br />Identify major issuesthat cause ELLs to drop out of school<br />Address possible solutions that may increase graduation rates and decrease dropout rates for English language learners. <br />
  3. 3. Myths and Misconceptions of ELL Dropouts<br />Total immersion into English culture and language will benefit English language learners, leading to successful graduation rates<br />Bilingual education is responsible for pushing students out of school (Krashen, 1998)<br />Dropout rates for Hispanic students are much higher than other minority groups solely because Hispanics are the largest growing minority in the United States<br />Under NCLB, all states are required to nationally report graduation rates (Zehr, 2009) <br />
  4. 4. Debunking the Myths: The Reality<br />ELLs with native language and cultural maintenance are actually less likely to drop out than students who are solely instructed in English (Krashen,1998) (Feliciano, 2001)<br />Hispanics do have the highest dropout rates, but not nearly as high as reported, because these rates are inclusive of immigrants who dropped out of school prior to arrival in the United States<br />Many states fail to report their graduation rates, which skews national data. (In 2010, data was missing for 13 states) (Zehr, 2009) <br />
  5. 5. The Need for Uniformity<br />Currently, the ways which we identify ELL graduates and dropouts are not nationally agreed upon (Zehr, 2009)<br />Major controversies about the subject exist <br />(Example: Should an ELL who has been labeled English proficient still be considered an ELL when graduation rates are reported?)<br />This hinders the calculations and data for ELLs and could misrepresent facts and populations <br />
  6. 6. Causes of ELL Dropouts<br />Low Social Capital<br />Lack of Stability (Hanna, 2003)<br />Not specific to school and academics, but externally as well.<br />Limited Neighborhoods<br />Low SES<br />Student mobility and interrupted learning <br />High-Stakes Testing<br />Non-English-proficient ELLs are often tested in English<br />Causes a great deal of psychological pressure (Fine et al., 2007)<br />Test-driven ESL curriculum (Radigan, 2008)<br />
  7. 7. Causes of ELL Dropouts<br />Grade Retention<br />Leads to lack of motivation and attributes to affective filter<br />Lack of Student Engagement<br />Poorly-motivated social networks and peer groups (Ream & Rumberger, 2008)<br />Lack of Student Advocates<br />Interaction between schools and the families of at-risk ELLs is very limited <br />
  8. 8. Post Dropout Consequences<br />Low Social Capital<br />Involvement in gang life (Michie, 2007)<br />Laborious work force involvement (Fry, 2003)<br />Long lasting lack of English proficiency<br />Economic and health-related hardships (Jackson et al., 2008)<br />“Downward failure spiral” for families of ELLs and futures generations (Radigan, 2008)<br />
  9. 9. Solutions: Bilingual and Bicultural Education<br />Immigrants should Americanize and maintain immigrant culture (Feliciano, 2001)<br />The commonly practiced “straight-line assimilation” for immigrants should be countered.<br />Curriculum should be culture-based (Nealy, 2008)<br />Cultural relevance fosters student engagement<br />Bilingualism should also be encouraged at home (Feliciano, 2001)<br />
  10. 10. Solutions: Alternative and International Schools <br />Alternative Schools (Michie, 2007)<br />Provide a second chance for former dropouts or at-risk ELLs<br />Emphasize interpersonal relationships between students and teachers<br />Teachers act as role models and provide external support<br />Schedules and policies differ from traditional public schools (Later school-start, shorter terms and curriculum units) <br />International Schools (Fine et al., 2007)<br />Bridge students culturally and academically<br />Students are surrounded by peers in similar circumstances (inclusion and comfort) <br />
  11. 11. Solutions: Changes to Standardized Testing<br />ELLs should be tested in their native language<br />Schools should be held just as accountable at the secondary level as they are at the elementary level (Nealy, 2008)<br />The accountability system needs to be equitable in regard to all students, in order to finally treat ELLs fairly (Fine et al., 2007)<br />National expectations for English proficiency must be reformed to be more realistic <br />
  12. 12. Solutions: School Outreach and Improved Student Engagement<br />Schools should provide student advocates (Radigan, 2008)<br />Advocates foster communication between schools and ELL families (Radigan, 2008)<br />Outreach programs can make efforts to improve neighborhood stability (Hanna, 2003)<br />School professionals should help students with societal transitions beyond school walls (LUCHA, 2010)<br />Students in these programs show higher engagement and academic motivation<br />
  13. 13. Conclusion: Big Ideas<br />In order to improve the current ELL dropout problem, we first need:<br />Uniformity of data calculations and reports for graduation and dropout rates<br />Then, we need:<br />Bilingual and Bicultural education<br />Programs, schools, and professionals designed to promote stability for at-risk ELLs through outreach<br />Reform of national expectations and standards<br />
  14. 14. Works Cited<br />Continuing & Innovative Education, The University of Texas at Austin. (2010, May 17). LUCHA offers help to texas educators for improving graduation, decreasing dropout rates. Retrieved from<br />Feliciano, C. (2001, December). The benefits of biculturalism: Exposure to immigrant culture and dropping out of school among asian and latino youths. Social Science Quarterly, 82(4), 865-880. Retrieved from EBSCOhost<br />Fine, M., Futch, V., Jaffe-Walter, R., Pedraza, P., Stoudt, B. (2007 March). Swimming: On oxygen, resistance, and possibility for immigrant youth under siege. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 38(1), 76-96. Retrieved from JSTOR<br />Fry, R. (2003, June 13). Hispanic youth dropping out of u.s. schools: Measuring the challenge. Pew Hispanic Center. Retrieved from<br />Hanna, W.J. (2003) Mobility and the children of Langley park’s immigrant families. Journal of Negro Education, 72(1). Retrieved from JSTOR<br />Jackson, J., Kurlaender, M. & Reardon, S.F. (2008 June). Middle school predictors of high school achievement in three california school districts. California Dropout Research Project. Retrieved from<br />Krashen, S.D. (1998). The dropout argument. USC Center for Multilingual Multicultural Research. Retrieved from<br />Nealy, M.J. (2008, July 11). LULAC calls for culture-based educational approach and accountability to stem dropout rate among minorities. Diverse: Issues in Higher Education. Retrieved from<br />Michie, G. (2007). A real alternative: Tragedy and hope in an urban immigrant community. The International Journal of School Disaffection, 6-13. Retrieved from<br />
  15. 15. Works Cited Continued…<br />Radigan, J. (2008, March 26). Latino English language learners overcome by highschool push-out policies. Retrieved from<br />Ream, R., Rumberger, R. (2008 April). Student engagement, peer social capital, and school dropout among Mexican americans and non-latino white students. Sociology of Education, 81(2), 109-139. Retrieved from JSTOR<br />Zehr, M.A. (2009, September 16). Graduation rates on ells a mystery: Many states, districts don’t track data. Education Week, 29(3). Retrieved from<br />