Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

The Physical Characteristics of Tropical Cyclones


Published on

Published in: Technology, Education

The Physical Characteristics of Tropical Cyclones

  1. 1. The Physical Characteristics of Tropical Cyclones<br />Case Study: The 1970 Bhola Cyclone <br />
  2. 2. Cyclones, Hurricanes, Typhoons<br />Named according to region (1)<br />Cyclones – Develop over the Indian Ocean(1)<br />Hurricanes - Develop over Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans(1)<br />Typhoons – Develop over western Pacific Oceans(1)<br />All produce similar effects(1)<br />Eye<br />Typhoon Odessa, Philippines<br />
  3. 3. Developmental Stages<br />Progression: depression storm cyclone(2) <br />Classified according to wind speeds(2)<br />Tropical Depression - less than 39 m/h (2)<br />Tropical Storm - between 39 m/h and 73 m/h (2) <br />Tropical Cyclone - at least 74 m/h (2) <br />
  4. 4. Tropical Cyclones Introduction<br />Tropical cyclones are intense, rotating, low-pressure storms (2)<br />Develop over warm, tropical oceans(2) <br />Produce strong winds and heavy rainfall(2)<br />Can lead to immense flooding(2) <br />Destructive Winds<br />
  5. 5. Formation of Tropical Cyclones<br />Warm water generates formation of tropical cyclones(4)<br />Ocean temperatures must be at least 26.5°C(7)<br />Over warm oceans moist, humid air (water vapour)(4)<br />Warm air moves along the surface(4)<br />This air converges and rises rapidly(5) <br />Intense rising of air forms low pressure systems (7)<br />
  6. 6. Formation of Tropical Cyclones<br />As air rises, it cools, becomes saturated and condenses(4)<br />Water vapour condenses into liquid droplets(4)<br />Formation of thunderclouds(5) <br />Condensation releases heat stored in water vapour(4)<br />This latent heat warms the atmosphere(4)<br />Air becomes lighter causing strong updrafts(4)<br />
  7. 7. Formation of Tropical Cyclones<br />Air expands and diverges at higher levels(5) <br />Occurs only where wind speed/direction remain constant (no wind shear) (7)<br />Air moves in at surface taking the place of rising air(4)<br />This intensifies convergence(5)<br />Creates wind and increases rising movement(4)<br />Builds and progresses into a mature cyclone(5) <br />
  8. 8. Coriolis Effect<br />Spinning of earth on its axis produces wind deflections (Coriolis Effect) (7)<br />Causes rising air to spiral around center (core) (7)<br />Spirals with great force (7)<br />Winds are now rotating, rising and moving in to fill spaces (7)<br />Wind speeds increase and cyclone grows (7)<br />
  9. 9. Coriolis Effect<br />Northern hemisphere winds are blowing counter-clockwise around center core (6) <br />Southern hemisphere winds are blowing clockwise around center core (6) <br />
  10. 10. The Eye, Eyewall, Rainbands<br />The Eye - the clear, calm center of storm(4)<br />Cool air descends into this center (downdrafts)(4)<br />Eyewall – ring of thunderstorms close to eye(4)<br />Eyewall produces the most devastating winds(4)<br />Rainbands – curved groups of clouds andthunderstorms (4)<br />Rainbands travel away from eye in a spiral motion(4) <br />
  11. 11. Storm Surges<br />Occur when tropical cyclones reach land (3)<br />Storm surge – raised swell of water (3)<br />60 to 80 km across (3)<br />Around 2 to 5 meters higher than normal tides (3)<br />Created by heavy winds and cause flooding (3)<br />
  12. 12. Locations of Tropical Cyclones<br />Between 10 to 30° North and South of equator (2) <br />Within the tropic of Cancer and Capricorn (2)<br />Poleward side of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (2) <br />Zone of low pressure (ITCZ) (2) <br />Coriolis effect greatly reduced at equator (4)<br />No tropical cyclones occur at equator (4)<br />ITCZ<br />Tropical Cyclone Appearances<br />
  13. 13. Tropical Cyclone Categories<br />
  14. 14. Case Study: The 1970 Bhola Cyclone<br />Storm Survivors<br />
  15. 15. The 1970 Bhola Cyclone<br />November 12, 1970(8)<br />The deadliest tropical cyclone recorded(8)<br />Developed over Bay of Bengal(8)<br />Gathered speed as it moved northward(8)<br />Devastated East Pakistan (Bangladesh) and West Bengal of India(8)<br />India<br />Bay of Bengal<br />Storm Path<br />
  16. 16. The Bhola Cyclone Characteristics<br />Wind speeds reached 115 m/h (8)<br />Strength of a category 3 hurricane (8)<br />33 foot high storm surge (8)<br />Massive storm surge caused flooding and fatalities (8)<br />Bhola Cyclone on November 11, 1970<br />
  17. 17. The Bhola Cyclone - Damage<br />Storm surge: <br /><ul><li>Flooded low-lying islands
  18. 18. Wiped out crops
  19. 19. Destroyed whole villages
  20. 20. Demolished 85% of homes in the area (8)</li></ul>Estimated damage at 86.4 million dollars (8)<br />300,000 - 500,000 people were killed (8)<br />Great Bhola Cyclone<br />
  21. 21. References<br />(3)Australian Government Bureau of Meteorology. (2009). About Tropical Cyclones. Retrieved November 22, 2009, from<br />(8) 1970 Bhola cyclone. (2009, November 22). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved November 23, 2009, from<br />(1)Catto, N., Hyndman, D., Hyndman, D. (2009). Natural Hazards and Disasters. Toronto, ON: Nelson Education<br />(6) Earth Science Australia. (2009). Tropical Cyclones. Retrieved November 22, 2009, from<br />(4)National Weather Service. (2008, October 8). Tropical Weather. Retrieved November 22, 2009, from<br />(5) Nelson, S.A. (2009, October 30). Exceptional Weather – Tropical Cyclones. Retrieved November 22, 2009, from<br />(2) Tropical cyclone. (2009, November 22). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved November 20, 2009, from<br />(7)WikiAnswers. (2009). How do cyclones form? Retrieved November 23, 2009, from<br />