Trypanosomiasis

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Trypanosomiasis

  1. 1. Mr. Ali A. Radwan
  2. 2. Introduction :- African Trypanosomiasis, also known as "sleeping sickness” . - Caused by microscopic parasites of the species Trypanosoma brucei. - It is transmitted by the tsetse fly (Glossina species), which is found only in rural Africa. - It has been a serious public health problem in some regions of sub-Saharan Africa. - The other human form of trypanosomiasis, called Chagas disease
  3. 3. Trypanosoma life cycle :-
  4. 4. Blood smear Giemsa stain
  5. 5. Diagnosis :- Diagnosis relies on recognition of the flagellate on a blood smear . - Motile organisms may be visible in the buffy coat when a blood sample is spun down. - In humans the tsetse fly bite erupts into a red sore and within a few weeks the person can : • • • • Fever Swollen lymph glands Aching muscles and joints Headaches and irritability
  6. 6. In advanced stages :• alteration of the biological clock (the circadian rhythm) • Confusion • Slurred speech • Seizures and difficulty in walking and talking • These problems can develop over many years and if not treated • “Leading over many years to death”
  7. 7. Clinical signs :- Cattle may show enlarged lymph nodes and internal organs. - Hemolytic anemia is a characteristic sign. - Systemic disease and reproductive are common, and cattle appear to waste away. - Horses with dourine show signs of ventral and genital edema and urticarial. - Infected dogs and cats may show severe systemic signs.
  8. 8. Treatment :- Diminazene - Homidium - Suramin - Fly control is another option but is difficult to implement.
  9. 9. Prevention : The main approaches to controlling African trypanosomiasis are to reduce the reservoirs of infection and the presence of the tsetse fly.  Screening of people at risk helps identify patients at an early stage.  Diagnosis should be made as early as possible and before the advanced stage to avoid complicated .

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