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Theme 1

  1. 1. Theme 1<br />By: Maria Vassilakis<br />History 141<br />Professor Arguello<br />September 28, 2011<br />
  2. 2. Background Reading: The Americas in the 19th Century<br />In the late 18th and 19th centuries, almost all of the land got their independence from European colonial powers.<br />American’s had to struggle in order to build “states and societies.”<br />At that point there was a lot of migration, a lot of economic growth, also civil war and violence.<br />As America gained their independence from Britain, the U.S.’s government expanded westward.<br />Latin America was very “fragmented” in which individual states experienced problems in their society.<br />
  3. 3. 19th century continued…<br />Westward expansion brought setters in the Native Indian land and they fought for their land, which eventually pushed them into reservations.<br />It also created intension in Mexico and Texas.<br />The push and the American Civil War pushed Canada “toward political autonomy.”<br />Latin American leaders had little knowledge on how to run a government and looked to the U.S., as an example.<br />The Mexican Constitution of 1917 provided “universal suffrage, state-supported education, minimum wages and maximum hours.”<br />
  4. 4. The Little Ice Age<br />In early September, during the 14-19th century targeted man kind.<br />In 1653, priests would set out to kill “the monster,” that engulfed their villages. They would sprinkle holy water in hopes that God would make it go away.<br />There were huge famines that lead to the French Revolution and continued with 1,300 devastating effects.<br />Between 1371-1791, 101 famines alone were devastated.<br />Several proposals have been made that might have caused the ice age, such as, “low solar radiation, volcanic activity, or changes in the ocean circulation.” <br />The Black Death also caused decreased agricultural activity,<br /> Art became popular in depicting the devastating harsh winter that took place.<br />
  5. 5. Frontiers of the Americas<br />“In 1801, America is looking bleak.”<br />Foreign powers came forth from the Spanish, the French, and even the British empire.<br />In the 19th century, America expanded westward to 17 states and doubled to half the size, which is known as the Louisiana Purchase. It cost 15 million dollars.<br />The Louisiana Purchase was one of Thomas Jefferson’s greatest achievements.<br />July 14th, 1789, began the American Revolution in hopes to defeat the British.<br />
  6. 6. Frontier continued…<br />The Haitian Revolution took place between 1791-1804.<br />It eliminated slavery and gave birth to the Haitian Republic.<br />Haiti was under French colonial rule.<br />“The African population on the island began to hear of the agitation for independence by the rich European planters.”<br />One of the most successful black commanders was, Toussaint L’Ouverture, who was a former slave himself.<br />The last battle of the Haitian Revolution took place in 1803.<br />January 1, 1804, Haiti declared it’s independence and became a free republic.<br />“The Haitian Revolution was influential in slave rebellions in the United States and British colonies.”<br />
  7. 7. Crossroads of Freedom<br />Slavery had been the root of all evil and the cause of the civil war.<br />The southern states had separated from the rest of the U.S., and created a Union which wouldn’t succeed.<br />September 17, 1862, marks the most bloodiest war ever taken place in the Maryland village of Sharpsburg.<br />After the battle there was still strife which led to the battle of Gettysburg.<br /> George B. McClellan was a well known commander and was a young man when he led the army, <br />
  8. 8. Crossroads continued…<br />The confederate southern states were Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina to name a several.<br />Thomas J. Jackson was the most “renowned commander in the South and the most feared in the North.” And Robert E. Lee was his successor.<br />“Americans were the world’s preeminent newspaper-reading people, with by far the largest per capita circulation of any country.”<br />The Seven Day Battle took place on June 25 to July 1, 1862.<br />Slave labor was so high in demand that the Confederate armies would draft the black slaves first to the white people.<br />
  9. 9. Crossroads continued…<br />Disease became widespread on the Virginia Peninsula, and wiped out a lot of the men from malaria, typhoid, and dysentery.<br />The First Battle of Bull Run took place on July 21, 1861, which didn’t take so well. The Second Battle of the Bull Run was worse than the first.<br />Abraham Lincoln did not like McClellan and it was well documented by his private secretary, calling McClellan “a little crazy.”<br />The Army of Northern Virginia looked unkempt and looked poor rather than real soldiers.<br />
  10. 10. Crossroads continued…<br />The Battle of Antietam took place on September 17, 1862, and was the first major battle of the American civil war.<br />The Army of Northern Virginia was destroyed at Antietam.<br />The Emancipation Proclamation was issued during the civil war and declared to free the slaves, which freed 50,000 of them.<br />The democrats thought the Proclamation was unconstitutional. <br />“No other campaign and battle in the war had such momentous, multiple consequences as Antietam.”<br />

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