Kingdom animalia

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a ppt on the +1 chapter kingdom animalia.
Includes details about kingdoms phylums etc... with details and pictures

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Kingdom animalia

  1. 1. KINGDOM ANIMALIA
  2. 2. • HETEROTROPHIC • MULTICELLULAR • EUKARYOTIC • NO CELL WALL AND PLASTIDS
  3. 3. PHYLUM PORIFERA • Pore bearing • Aquatic, mostly marine, a few are freshwater forms • Sedentary • Cellular grade of organization • water canal system with numerous pores, the Ostia through which water enters the inner cavity, spongocoel and a large anterior opening, the osculum through which water is given out. Exchange of materials between spongocoel and water in it.
  4. 4. • Asymmetry or radial symmetry. • Diploblastic. Mesoglea has a support of spongin fibres and spicules. • Acoelomates • No metamerism • No notochord • Hermaphroditic. Reproduction asexual and sexual. Asexual – budding, fragmentation, regeneration. Sexual by internal fertilization. Zygote develops into free swimming larva.
  5. 5. Examples:- Sycon (Scypha)
  6. 6. Spongilla (freshwater sponge) Euspongium (bath sponge)
  7. 7. • Mostly marine, sessile or free swimming. • Tissue grade of organisation • Water vascular system • Blind sac plan • Radial symmetry • Diploblastic • Acoelaomate • No metamerism • No notochord
  8. 8. • Mouth guarded by numerous tentacles armed with cnidocytes or stinging cells which help in anchorage, defence, food capture etc. • The coelenteron or gastrovascular cavity has a single opening, mouth or hypostome. • Digestion intra- and extra-cellular • Some have a calcareous exoskeleton that form a coral. • Two body forms- sedentary, asexually reproducing form called polyp and free swimming, sexually reproducing form called medusa. Some species show alternation of polypoid and medusoid generations (metagenesis).
  9. 9. • Some species have different types of individuals or zooids- gastrozooid for nutrition, dactylozooid for defence, gonozooid for reproduction etc. Examples:- Hydra Pennatula (Sea pen)
  10. 10. ObeliaAurelia- (jelly fish)
  11. 11. Gogonia (sea fan)
  12. 12. Physalia (Portuguese man of war) Meandrina (brain coral)
  13. 13. • Marine, commonly called sea walnuts or comb jellies. • Radially symmetrical • Diploblastic • Tissue level of organisation • Eight rows of ciliated plates- comb plates, help in locomotion • Digestion extra- and intra-cellular. • Bioluminiscence- produce light • Hermaphroditism. External fertilisation with indirect development.
  14. 14. C t e n o p l a n a P l e u r o b r a c h i
  15. 15. • Body cylindrical, hence commonly called round worms. • Free living in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Some are parasites in plants and animals. • Organ grade of organization • Bilateral symmetry • Triploblastic • Pseudocoelomate • Tube- within tube body plan • Muscular pharynx for sucking in of food • Excretory tube or Renette cells for excretion. • Sexes separate (gonochorism), sexual dimorphism present. Females longer than males.
  16. 16. • Internal fertilization, direct or indirect development. Examples • Ascaris (roundworm)
  17. 17. Wuchhereria (filaria worm)
  18. 18. • Aquatic or terrestrial, marine or freshwater, free living or parasitic. • Organ system level of organisation • Bilateral symmetry • Triploblastic • Eucoelomate • Body metamerism seen. • Longitudinal and circular muscles help in locomotion. Locomotory organs like setae, parapodia present. • Closed circulatory system. • Nephridia help in osmoregulation and excretion.
  19. 19. • Nervous system consists of paired ganglea which are the primitive of brain and a double ventral nerve cord connected by lateral nerves to ganglea. • Dioecious (sexes separate) or monoecious. Sexual reproduction only Examples; Neries ( sandworm)
  20. 20. Hirudinaria(Leech) Earthworm Pheretima
  21. 21. Earthworm -uses Cocoon
  22. 22. • Largest phylum in the kingdom. 2/3rd of animals yet discovered belong to this phylum • Organ system level of organisation • Bilateral symmetry • Triploblastic • Eucoelomates. Coelom filled with blood, hence called haemocoel • Body consists of head, thorax and • Abdomen and covered by chitinous exoskeleton • Jointed appendages • Respiration by gills, booklungs and trachea
  23. 23. • Sense organs simple or compound eyes, antennae or feelers and statocysts or balancing organs • Excretion through malpighian tubules or green glands • Mostly dioecious, fertilisation internal, oviparous, direct or indirect development • Examples Apis – honey bee
  24. 24. Laccifer lacca (Lac insect)
  25. 25. Anopheles mosquito Aedes mosquito
  26. 26. Aedes mosquito Culex mosquito
  27. 27. Gregareous pest; Locust
  28. 28. Limulus (king crab)
  29. 29. Apiculture
  30. 30. • Second largest phylum • Terrestrial or aquatic, marine or freshwater • Organ system level of organisation • Larvae bilaterally symmetrical, Adults show bilateral symmetry or asymmetry • Triploblastic, eucoelomate • Body in many animals covered by a calcareous exoskeleton, in some, endoskeleton present. • Body contains a head, muscular foot and a visceral hump • Visceral hump covered by a thin, soft, spongy skin like mantle
  31. 31. • Space between them forms the mantle cavity, which contains feather like gills. • Excretion by gills and kidneys. • Head has sensory tentacles • Mouth contains teeth like radula • Dioecious, oviparous, indirect development Examples • Pila (apple snail), Pinctada (pearl oyster), Sepia(cuttle fish), Loligo (squid), Octopus (devil fish), Aplysia(sea hare) Dentalium (tusk shell), Chaetopleura
  32. 32. Pila- apple snail Octopus-devil fish
  33. 33. Loligo- squid Sepia- cuttle fish
  34. 34. Aplysia – sea hare Chaetopleura Dentalium- tusk shell Pinctada- pearl oyster
  35. 35. • Strictly marine • Organ system level of organisation • Larvae bilaterally symmetrical, adults radially symmetrical (pentaradial symmetry) • Triploblastic & Eucoelomate • Ventral mouth and dorsal anus • Water vascular system with canals and tube feet helps in locomotion, food capture and transport of materials. • Body has an endoskeleton of calcareous ossicles, hence the name echinodermata- spiny skinned animals • Sexes separate (gonochorism), sexual reproduction only, external fertilisation, indirect development, free swimming larva
  36. 36. Asterias- star fish Echinus- sea urchin
  37. 37. Antedon- sea lily Ophiura- brittle star
  38. 38. • Examples • Asterias – star fish • Echinus- sea urchin • Antedon- sea lily • Cucumaria –sea cucumber • Ophiura- brittle star
  39. 39. • Earlier considered as a subphylum under phylum chordata • Small group of worm like animals- body cylindrical • Marine • Organ system grade of organisation • Bilateral symmetry • Triploblastic body • Eucoelomate • Body has a oroboscis, a collar and a trunk • Open circulatory system • Respiration through gills • Excretion through proboscis gland • Sexes separate, internal fertilization, indirect development
  40. 40. Examples; Balanoglossus
  41. 41. Balanoglossus Saccoglossus
  42. 42. • Notochord in the embryonic/larval/adult/ through out life • A dorsal hollow nerve cord • Paired pharyngeal gill slits • Oragan system grade of organisation • Bilateral symmetry • Triploblastic • Coelomate • Post anal tail • Closed circulatory system with ventral heart
  43. 43. • This phylum is diveded into 3 subphyla;Cephalochorata, Urochordata and Vertebrata Subphylum CEPHALOCHORDATA • Known as protochordate. • Exclusively marine • Notochord extends from head (cephalic) to tail and occur throughout life • Eg; Branchiostoma
  44. 44. Branchiostoma
  45. 45. Subphylum UROCHORDATA • Notochord present only during larval stage • Strictly marine • Examples Ascidia
  46. 46. Salpa Doliolum
  47. 47. Subphylum Vertebrata • Notochord in the embryonic period • Later it is replaced by a vertebral column formed of cartilage or bone • Ventral , muscular, 2/3/4 chambered heart • Osmoregulation and excretion by kidney • Locomotion by paired appendages (fins/limbs/ wings) • This subphylum has 7 classes:
  48. 48. 1. Class Cyclostomata • Blood sucking ectoparasites of marine fishes • Elongated fish like body • 6-15 pairs of gill slits • Circular sucking mouth without jaws • No scales and paired fins • Cartilagenous endoskeleton • Closed circulation • Migrate to freshwaters for spawning. Larvae return to ocean • Eg; Petromyzon (lamprey) Myxine (hagfish)
  49. 49. Petromyzon- lamprey Myxine- hag fish
  50. 50. 2. Class Chondrichthyes • Marine • Stream lined body • Cartilagenous endoskeleton • Ventral mouth • Notochord occur throughout life • Gill slits withou operculum • Skin covered by granular placoid scales. They form backwardly directed teeth also • Powerful jaws for predaceous life • No air bladder, so constantly swim to avoid sinking
  51. 51. • 2- chambered heart with an atrium and a ventricle • Homotherms (poikilotherms) no ability to control body temperature • Sexes separate, males have spine like claspers at anal region • Internal fertilisation, indirect development • Examples; Scoliodon (Dog fish) Pristis (saw fish) • Carcharodon (Great white shark)Trygon (sting ray)
  52. 52. Scoliodon- dog fish • Pristis- Saw fish
  53. 53. Carcharodon- great white shark Trygon- sting ray
  54. 54. Torpedo- electric ray
  55. 55. 3. Class Osteichthyes • Marine and freshwater fishes • Bony endoskeleton • Stream lined body with terminal mouth • 4 pairs of gill slits covered by an operculum • Cycloid/ ctenoid scales • Air bladder to regulate buoyancy • 2 chambered, venous heart with single circulation • Cold blooded • Sexes separate, mostly external fertilization oviparous, direct development
  56. 56. Marine fishes Exocoetus- flying fish Hippocampus- sea horse
  57. 57. Fresh water fishes Labeo – Rohu Catla -Katla Clarius- Magur(mushi)
  58. 58. Aquarium fishes Betta – fighting fish Pterophyllum- Angel fish
  59. 59. 4. Class Amphibia • Live in aquatic (freshwater) and terrestrial habitats • Body has a head and a trunk, some have 2 pairs of limbs, some have tail • No scales, skin moist • Eyes have eyelids, ears marked by tympanum • Gut, urethra and reproductive tract open into a common chamber, cloaca; opens out through cloacal opening • Cutaneous, buccal and pulmonary respiration
  60. 60. • 3 chambered heart with two atria and a partially chambered ventricle • Cold blooded • Sexes separate, external fertilization, oviparous, indirect development • Example; Bufo -toad Rana- frog
  61. 61. Tree frog Salamandra- salamander Ichthyophis- (limbless amphibian)
  62. 62. 5. Class Reptilia • Creeping or crawling animals • Mostly terrestrial, all are lung breething • Body covered by dry scales • No external ear, tympanum present • Two pairs of limbs, no limbs in some animals • 3 chambered heart, 4 in crocodile • Poikilotherms- cold blooded • Some reptiles shed scales- skin cast • Sexes separate, internal fertilization, oviparous, direct development
  63. 63. Examples Chelone- turtle Testudo- tortoise Chameleon- tree lizard Calotes- garden lizard
  64. 64. Crocodilus-crocodile Alligator Hemidactylus- house lizard
  65. 65. Poisonous snakes Naja- cobra Bangarus- Krait Vipera- Viper
  66. 66. 6. Class Aves • Glorified reptiles • Body covered by feathers • Presence of beak variously modified for type of food • Forelimbs modified as wings • Hind limbs with scales; modified for walking/ running/ swimming/ clasping the tree etc. • Dry skin, oil or preen glands at the base of tail make feathers water proof • Bones have air cavities (pneumatic) • Gut provided with crop to store food and gizzard to grind food
  67. 67. • Heart 4 chambered • Homiothermic- warm blooded- constant body temperature • Lungs provide with air sacs provide extra air while flight • Sexes separate, internal fertilizatio, oviparous, direct development • Examples Corvus- crow Columba- Pigeon
  68. 68. Psittacula- parrot Struthio- ostrich Pavo –peacock Aptenodytes- penguin
  69. 69. Neophoron- vulture
  70. 70. 7. Class Mammalia • These animals live in all terrestrial habitats, some are aquatic and some have flight adaptations • Presence of milk producing glands-mammary glands, to nourish the young • Two pairs of limbs adapted for the mode of life • Skin covered with hairs • External ear with pinna • Jaws with heterodont teeth • 4 chambered heart • Thorax and abdomen separated by muscular diaphragm • Homiothermic • Lung respiration • Sexes separate, internal fertilization, mostly viviparous, direct development
  71. 71. Examples Ornithorhyncus- Platypus Pteropus- flying fox Macropus- Kangaroo Camelus- camel
  72. 72. Macaca-monkey Felis- cat Rattus- rat Canis- dog
  73. 73. Elephas- elephant Equus- horse Delphinus- dolphin Balaenoptera- blue whale
  74. 74. Panthera tigris -Tiger Panthera leo- Lion

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