Stress & Gastrointestinal Problems

1,092 views

Published on

This ppt gives an overview of stress response and its effects on the gastrointestinal system.
Dr B Ravinder Reddy
Hyderabad

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Stress & Gastrointestinal Problems

  1. 1. Dr B Ravinder Reddy<br />MBBS, MS, FRCS (Edinburgh), FRCS (Glasgow)<br />Consultant Gastrointestinal & General Surgeon<br />Chief – Division of Clinical Nutrition<br />Care Hospitals<br />Hyderabad<br />bravinderreddy@doctor.com<br />
  2. 2. Dept.of Surgical Gastroenterology & <br /> Division of Clinical Nutrition<br />Greetings From Care Hospital, Hyderabad<br />www.carehospitals.com<br />
  3. 3. Stress<br />Gastrointestinal Tract<br />
  4. 4. What is stress?<br />Is a biological term<br />Any stimulus or fear of pain that <br /> disturbs the normal equilibrium<br />
  5. 5. Stimulus can be…<br />Physical<br />
  6. 6. Stimulus can be…<br />Mental<br />
  7. 7. Stimulus can be…<br />Emotional<br />
  8. 8. Any stimulus that <br />triggers a stress response<br />Stressor<br />
  9. 9. Stressors can be… <br />Internal<br />External<br /><ul><li> Thoughts
  10. 10. Beliefs
  11. 11. Attitudes
  12. 12. Loss
  13. 13. Tragedy
  14. 14. Change</li></li></ul><li>Stressors can be… <br />Negative<br />Positive<br />
  15. 15. Positive Stress<br />Eustress<br />This occurs when the level of stress is high <br />enough to motivate a person into action to <br /> get thingsaccomplished<br />
  16. 16. Eustress<br />Performing in a competition (play / sports / dance / debate)<br />Taking a test<br />Moving into a new place / home<br />Giving a presentation<br />
  17. 17. Negative Stress<br />Distress<br />Occurs when the level of stress causes <br /> the body and the mind to<br />respond negatively<br />
  18. 18. Distress<br />Failing an examination or test<br />Loosing money on stock market<br />Fighting with friend or family member<br />Dealing with separation or divorce<br />Being late<br />
  19. 19. Distress<br />The commonest cause of distress amongst professionals is related to their respective work!<br />
  20. 20. If work is …<br />Meaningful<br />Fulfilling<br />Rewarding<br />
  21. 21. But work can often be…<br />Unpredictable<br />Challenging<br />Hard<br />Thankless<br />
  22. 22. What happens when a person is stressed?<br />Body’s Responds In An Automatic Way<br />
  23. 23. Body’s Response to Stress<br /> Heart rate increases<br /> Muscles tighten<br /> Sweating increases<br /> Adrenaline increases<br /> Pupils dilate<br /> Hearing improves<br />Fight / Flight<br /> Response <br />
  24. 24. What happens if the stress continues?<br />Body becomes extremely tired or fatigued!<br />
  25. 25. Fatigue can be… <br />Physiological<br />Physical<br /><ul><li> Simple Tiredness
  26. 26. Extreme Tiredness
  27. 27. Chronic Tiredness
  28. 28. Mental Fatigue
  29. 29. Metabolic Fatigue
  30. 30. Immunologic Fatigue</li></li></ul><li>Why do these changes happen?<br />
  31. 31. Hans Selye<br />
  32. 32. Hans Selye<br />
  33. 33. Hans Selye’s GAS Theory<br />Stress<br />Causes physiological & psychological response.<br />These in turn induces a kind of adjustment….<br />General Adaptation Syndrome<br />
  34. 34. General Adaptation Syndrome<br />Resistance<br />Adaptation<br />Stress<br />
  35. 35. General Adaptation Syndrome<br />Resistance<br />Exhaustion<br />Stress<br />Disease<br />
  36. 36. Effects of Stress<br />Long Term<br />Short Term<br />
  37. 37. Short Term Effects<br />Blood is diverted from less vital organs to more vital ones<br />Heart rate increases to supply more blood quickly<br />Blood pressure increases to supply blood efficiently<br />Respiratory rate increases to get more oxygen from the atmosphere<br />
  38. 38. Short Term Effects<br />Glycogen in liver & muscles is converted to provide more glucose<br />Even more glucose is formed from non- carbohydrate substances, like proteins<br />
  39. 39. How does this acute <br /> stress manifest?<br />
  40. 40. Acute Stress: Signs & Symptoms<br />Cold skin + gooseflesh, flushing of skin and feeling of warmth<br />Breathlessness & dry mouth<br />Difficulty in speaking, swallowing<br />Abdominal discomfort + stomach ulcers<br />Loose stools<br />
  41. 41. Acute Stress: Signs & Symptoms<br />Increased blood glucose levels<br />Reduced energy stores<br />Headache, back ache & neck pain<br />Increase in diseases like eczema, psoriasis, arthritis<br />Difficulty in concentrating & memory disturbances<br />
  42. 42. Acute Stress: Signs & Symptoms<br />Sleeplessness<br />Loss of appetite<br />Decreased sexual drive<br />Anxiety & Depression<br />Outbursts of anger<br />
  43. 43. Long Term Effects<br />Persistent Stress<br />Secretion of Stress Hormones<br />Body Experiences Extra Stress<br />Due to High Levels of Hormones<br />Irreversible Physiological Damages<br />
  44. 44. Chronic Stress – Signs & Symptoms<br />Chronic head ache & mood swings<br />Anxiety & memory disturbances<br />Increased heart attacks & strokes because of increased blood pressure, sugar & cholesterol<br />Substance abuse<br />Sleeplessness<br />
  45. 45. Chronic Stress – Signs & Symptoms<br />Weight loss<br />Increase in allergies including asthma<br />Irritable bowel disease<br />Inflammatory bowel disease <br />Decreased sexual drive<br />
  46. 46. Brain & GIT are highly inter-related<br />Gastrointestinal symptoms are very common<br />
  47. 47. Effect <br /> of <br />Stress<br />Stress & Gastro Intestinal Tract<br />
  48. 48. Stress & Gastrointestinal Tract<br />Digestion is disturbed<br />Stomach emptying is delayed<br />Large intestine empties faster (IBS)<br />
  49. 49. Stress & Gastrointestinal Tract<br />Increased incidence of ulcers<br />Increased incidence of constipation and associated fissures & hemorrhoids<br />Increased incidence of various cancers<br />
  50. 50. Management of Stress<br />Self Help<br />PRAISES<br />
  51. 51. PRAISES<br />P: Physical exercise (Time spent meeting the <br /> basic physicalneeds and self care / <br /> health care activities)<br />R: Recreational activities (Time spent in the <br /> pursuitof fun or relaxation)<br />A: Artistic activities (Time engaging in creative <br /> pursuits, or enjoying the creativity of others (eg, <br /> listening to music, drawing, going to movies / <br /> plays)<br />
  52. 52. PRAISES<br />I: Intellectual time spent expanding or <br /> engaging the mind by means of direct or <br /> indirect learning activities<br />S: Spiritual efforts made to connect with <br /> anything larger than the individual or family<br /> (eg, religion, community)<br />
  53. 53. PRAISES<br />E: Employment time devoted to the pursuit of financial goals<br />S: Social time spent with others <br /> (eg, parenting, friends, associations)<br />
  54. 54. Positive Attitude Helps<br />
  55. 55. Same Positive Attitude…<br />
  56. 56. Many Many Thanks<br />?<br />bravinderreddy@doctor.com<br />

×