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Optical communication and Equipments


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Fiber optics and how optical communication takes place.Details regarding how signalling,routing and switching occurs in optical network .A little detail about various equipments used in optical communication.

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Optical communication and Equipments

  1. 1. A PRESENTATION ON: Fiber Optics
  3. 3. About Optical fiber and Communication
  4. 4. About optical fiber’s: Developed in 1970’s an optical fiber (or fiber) is a glass or plastic fiber designed to guide light along its length by confining as much light as possible in a propagating form. Optical fibers are widely used in fiber-optic communication, which permits transmission over longer distances and at higher data rates than other forms of wired and wireless communications. Optical fibers are long, thin strands of very pure glass usually 120 µm in diameter. They are arranged in bundles called optical cables and used to transmit light signals over long distances.
  5. 5. Fiber core: The core of a conventional optical fiber is a cylinder of glass or plastic that runs along the fiber's length. The core is surrounded by a medium with a lower index of refraction, typically a cladding of a different glass, or plastic. Fiber Cladding: Cladding is one or more layers of materials of lower refractive index, in intimate contact with a core material of higher refractive index. The cladding causes light to be confined to the core of the fiber by total internal reflection at the boundary between the two.
  6. 6. Optical fiber communication Optical fibers are based entirely on the principle of total internal reflection. This is explained in the following picture. Optical fiber is a long, thin strand of very pure glass about the diameter of a human hair. Optical fibers are arranged in bundles called optical cables and used to transmit light signals over long distances.  Fiber-optic transmission of light depends on preventing light from escaping from the fiber.
  7. 7. Different types of fibers: Based on the refractive index profile we have two types of fibers a. Step index fiber b. Graded index fiber.  Step index fiber In the step index fiber, the refractive index of the core is uniform throughout and undergoes an abrupt or step change at the core cladding boundary.  Graded index fiber In the graded index fiber, the refractive index of the core is made to vary in the parabolic manner such that the maximum value of refractive index is at the centre of the core.
  8. 8. Based on the modes propagating in optical fiber: a. Single mode fiber b. Multi mode fiber Single mode fiber Single mode fiber optic cable has a small diametric core that allows only one mode of light to propagate. Multi mode fiber Multimode fiber optic cable has a large diametric core that allows multiple modes of light to propagate. 
  9. 9. Signalling, Routing & Switching in optical communication
  10. 10. Signalling: Transmits information about lines and trunks and information about other aspects of call handling to control switching equipments. It can be done as: COMMON CHANNEL SIGNALLING: It is a digital communication technique that provides simultaneous transmission of subscriber data, signalling data and other traffic related signals throughout a network CCS is used to transmit to user data and control signals between MS and BTS and between BTS and MSC and between MSC and GMSC.  
  11. 11. LEGEND SSP= Service switching point STP= Signal transfer point SCP= Service control point Common channel signalling:
  12. 12. Routing: Routing is the exchange service which translates the destination data received from digit analysis into the physical port which leads to the dialed destination (outgoing trunk or line). Switching: In telecommunication, an optical switch is a switch that enables signals in optical fibers or integrated optical circuits (IOCs) to be selectively switched from one circuit to another.
  13. 13.  Switching of the various calls from one subscriber to the other is one of the main functions performed in any of the telecom network.  In recent years the telephone switches and data collection systems have become more powerful and flexible.
  14. 14. Basic Requirements for Optical Network
  15. 15. Splicing: A splicing is to connect one fiber optic cable to another permanently. Splices are "permanent" connections between two fibers. It is the attribute of permanence that distinguishes a splice from connectors. Splicing is only needed if the cable runs are too long for one straight pull or you need to mix a number of different types of cables.
  16. 16. Optical Networking Unit(ONU): An optical network unit (ONU) is a device that transforms incoming optical signals into electronics at a customer's premises in order to provide telecommunications services over an optical fiber network. ONU provides the subscribers with broadband Internet access. It is used in combination with an optical line terminal (OLT). Coupler: Fiber optic couplers are used to split the input signals into two or more outputs; they are called splitters in this case.  On the other hand, some types of couplers can be used to combine two or more inputs into one single output; they are called combiners in this case.
  17. 17. Optical Fiber Equipment
  18. 18. Cables: An optical fiber cable is a cable containing one or more optical fibers. The optical fiber elements are typically individually coated with plastic layers and contained in a protective tube suitable for the environment where the cable will be deployed. Patch cords: The buffer or jacket on patch cords is often color-coded to indicate the type of fiber used. The strain relief "boot" that protects the fiber from bending at a connector is color-coded to indicate the type of connection. Connectors with a plastic shell (such as SC connectors) typically use a color-coded shell.
  19. 19. Optical fiber cable Patch Cords color coding
  20. 20. Optical time domain reflectometer(OTDR): An OTDR is a fiber optic tester characterizing fibers and optical Networks. The aim of this instrument is to detect, locate and measure events at any location in the fiber optic link. An OTDR can test a fiber from only one end, that is it operates as a one dimensional Radar System. The OTDR technique produces geographic information with regard to localized loss and reflective events providing a pictorial and permanent record which may be used as a permanent baseline.
  21. 21. Joint Closure: It is well suited to accommodate a maximum of 96 fibers for various splice applications such as track (backbone), spur (branch) or distribution points. 3M’s proven mechanical sealing technology for the base-to-dome sealing provides for easy installation & re-entry. Cable ports can be sealed using the robust & reliable heat shrink mechanism
  22. 22. Power meter: An optical power meter (OPM) is a device used to measure the power in an optical signal. The term usually refers to a device for testing average power in fiber optic systems.  Other general purpose light power measuring devices are usually called radiometers, photometers, laser power meters, light meter. A typical optical power meter consists of a calibrated sensor, measuring amplifier and display.
  23. 23. Thank You