ACTIVITY - 1 LESSON - 11 NAME : KUNDU BRATIN ROLL NO. :28 STANDARD : 8TH SUBJECT : SOCIAL STUDIES TOPIC : WATER RESOURCES SIGN : GUIDED BY :KUNDU MADAM
WHAT IS WATER? We have leant a proverb “Water is Life”. Water is a natural resource. It’s chemical formula H2O. It is used for drinking , washing clothes and utensils etc. 97% of the water on the Earth is salt water, and only 3% is fresh water
WHAT IS WATER RESOURCES ? Water resources are sources of water that are useful or potentially useful. 97% of the water on the Earth is salt water, and only 3% is fresh water . The framework for allocating water resources to water users is known as water rights. Fresh water is a renewable resource, yet the worlds supply of clean, fresh water is steadily decreasing.
RIVERS OF NORTH INDIA The origins of the rivers of North India are in the glaciers and ice sheets. These rivers create flood twice in a year. The snow melts and it forms water and flood occurs in rivers. There are many rivers in north India. They are useful as waterways.
GANGA The very important river of south India is Ganga. It is called holy river of India. It originates from Gangotri. It flows in states like Uttaranchal , Uttar Pradesh , Bihar and Paschimbanga. It meets Bay of Bengal. It is an important river for irrigation.
GANGA & IT’S TRIBUTARIES Tributaries like Gomati , Gandak Ghaghara and Kosi met Gangarom North. Chambal,Betwa & Ken meet Ganga from south. Delhi , Mathura & Agra are situated on the bank of river Ganga. Ganga and her tributaries are perennial rivers.
BRAHMAPUTRA Brahmaputra also originates Himalaya. It flows through Arunachal Pradesh. She is known as Tsang Po in Tibet and Padma in Bangladesh. It is useful as waterways. Brahmaputra is a deep river.
BRAHMAPUTRA & TRIBUTARIES As these rivers flow through the regions the place receive more rainfall. Brahmaputra and its tributaries are always full of water and are used as waterways. Dibrugadh , Tezpur , Guwahati etc. are states located on bank of this river and every year flood occurs.
SINDHU River Sindhu originates from Man Sarovar from Himalayas. It is also called Indus river. It meets Arabian Sea. Then it flows through Pakistan. It is also flows in Jammu & Kashmir. There are many rivers joining Sindhu.
SINDHU & TRIBUTARIES The Sindhu & tributaries flows of Panjnad . Jhelum , Chenab , Ravi , Beas and Satluj are tributaries of Sindhu. The land of these areas are full of irrigation facilities. Satluj is the biggest of all.
RIVERS OF SOUTH INDIA Narmada , Tapi , Mahanadi , etc. are main rivers of South India. They originate from low mountain area. There are less water in these rivers. Dhuaandhar on Narmada , Jog on Sharavati & Shivsamudram on Kaveri are waterfalls in South India. Most of South Indian rivers meet Bay of Bengal.
NARMADA River Narmada originates from Amarkanthak hills. Narmada is the river of Madhya Pradesh Sardar Sarovar Project is established on river Narmada. It meets Gulf of Khambhat. It is the biggest river of Gujarat & Narmada.
GODAVRI Godavari originates from Western Ghats. It is the longest river of South India. It meets Bay of Bengal. It flows through states like Maharashtra & Andra Pradesh.
KAVERI Kaveri is known as Ganga of the South. It originates from Western Ghats. It meets Bay of Bengal. Kaveri has formed a small but fertile delta. There is one waterfall namely “Shivsamudram”. There are two dams namely Krishnaraj Sagar and Mettur.
KRISHNA Krishna river originates from Western Ghats. It flows through Maharashtra , Karnataka and Andra Pradesh. It meets Bay of Bengal. River Bhima and Tungabhadra meet Krishna river. A huge dam Nagarjunsagar is constructed on it.
CONSERVATION OF WATER Conservation of water should be done forgetting water in the future. Store rain water so that it can help in the time of famine or drought. Water should be use economically. Make ponds , chek dams in village. Make dams in different areas.
WHAT IS MULTIPURPOSE PROJECT ?A project to built dam and huge water reservoir on a river and use it for irrigation , hydroelectcity , flood control , is called multipurpose project.
PURPOSE OF MULTIPURPOSE Development of irrigation . Production of Hydroelectricity. Controlling river floods . Prevention of soil erosion . Construction of canals as waterways. Development of fisheries. Promoting tourist resorts. Providing clean and fresh water.
BHAKRA NAGAL PROJECT Bhakra Nangal dam is constructed on river Satluj in Punjab. The vast reservoir created by this dam is named “Govind Sagar”. This project is to be said an engineering marvel. The electricity is generated is useful to Himachal Pradesh,Punjab , Haryana.
HIRAKUND PROJECT This project is built on Mahanadi in Orissa. This dam is the longest dam in the world. It is the largest multipurpose project in Orissa. It helps in irrigation in Orissa. The electricity is produced in this dam.
DAMODAR VALLEY PROJECT Damodar valley project is the first multipurpose project in India. It is built on Damodar river . Apart from this another dam in Durgapur is built on and a long canal of 118 km. It meets Hugli river. It is used in irrigation and producing electricity in West Bengal & Jharkhand.
SARDAR SAROVAR PROJECT This project is built on river Narmada. It is 1210m long & 137.16m high dam. The vast reservoir created by this dam is named “Sardar Sarovar’. The network of this project is till 40,000kms. It is benefited for states like Gujarat, Maharashtra etc. The Narmada canal is longest irrigation canal in world.
WHAT WE LEARNT? We learnt that we should save water. Water is needed for many purpose. “Water is Life”. Use water economically. There are many huge dams in India. There are many big rivers in India. Rivers are used in irrigation , producing electricity etc.