Tenses, Tense, Tensis, Bahasa Inggris

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Tenses, Tense, Tensis, Bahasa Inggris

  1. 1. TENSESA. Present Tense Unit I Simple Present Tense / Present Tense Unit II Present Continuous Tense Unit III Present Perfect Tense Unit IV Present Perfect Continuous TenseB. Past Tense Unit V Simple Past Tense / Past Tense Unit VI Past Continuous Tense Unit VII Past Perfect Tense Unit VIII Past Perfect Continuous TenseC. Future Tense Unit IX Future Tense / Present Future Tense Unit X Future Continuous Tense Unit XI Future Perfect Tense Unit XII Future Perfect Continuous TenseD. Past Future Tense Unit XIII Past Future Tense Unit XIV Past Future Continuous Tense Unit XV Past Future Perfect Tense Unit XVI Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense 1
  2. 2. UNIT I SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE / PRESENT TENSE ( Bentuk Sekarang Kebiasaan / kenyataan )A. Penggunaan 1. Untuk menyatakan peristiwa atau perbuatan yang berlangsung setiap hari / berulang-ulang / kebiasaan sehari-hari (habitual action). 2. Untuk menyatakan suatu kejadian atau peristiwa yang merupakan kebenaran umum (general truth).B. Keterangan waktu Keterangan waktu yang menunjukkan tenses adalah : 1. Adverb of frequency - always - sometimes - usually - occasionally - generally - seldom - habibually - rarely - normally - never - often - ever - frequency 2. Every - every hour - every night - every day - every Sunday - every week - every Monday - every month - every Wednesday - every year - every Saturday - every morning - every January - every afternoon - every December - every evening 3. Once - once a day - once a month - once a week - once a year 2
  3. 3. 4. Twice 5. three times 6. four time 7. at noon 8. at night 9. at midnight 10. on Sunday, Monday 11. in the morning 12. in the afternoon 13. in the eveningC. Susunan kalimat 1. Positive (+) : Subject + Verb I (s/es) Subject Verb I (KK I) Object I write a story You buy a shirt We clean the room They play tennis He goes to school She gives a present It swims very fast 2. Negative (-) : Subject + do/does + not + verb I Subject do/does not Verb I Object I write a story You buy a shirt do We clean the room They not play tennis He goes to school She does gives a present It swims very fast 3
  4. 4. 3. Interrogativ (?) Do/does Subject Verb I Object I write a story| You buy a shirt? Do We clean the room? They play tennis? He goes to school? Does She gives a present? It swims very fast? 4
  5. 5. UNIT II PRESENT CONTINOUS TENSE (Bentuk sekarang sedang berlangsung)A. Penggunaan 1. Untuk menyatakan peristiwa suatu perbuatan yang sedang berlangsung atau sedang dikerjakan sekarang atau pada saat kita sedang bicara (at the time of speaking). 2. Untuk menyatakan suatu perbuatan yang bersifat sementaraB. Keterangan waktu Keterangan waktu yang biasa digunakan : - now - look - at present - today - at this moment - this (holiday, weekend, year, …) - stillC. Susunan kalimat 1. Positive (+) Subject + be I + Verb-ing Subject be 1 Verb I + ing Object I am writing a story You buying a shirt We are cleaning the room They playing tennis He going to school She is giving a present It swimming very fast 5
  6. 6. 2. Negative (-) (-) Subject + be 1 + not + V ing Subject be 1 not Verb I + ing Object I am writing a story You buying a shirt We are cleaning the room They not playing tennis He going to school She is giving a present It swimming very fast3. Interrogative (?) (?) Be 1 + Subject + Verb-ing Be 1 Subject Verb I + ing Object Am I writing a story You buying a shirt Are We cleaning the room They playing tennis He going to school Is She giving a present It swimming very fast 6
  7. 7. UNIT III PRESENT PERFECT TENSE ( Bentuk sekarang sudah selesai )A. Penggunaan 1. Untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang dilakukan pada waktu lampau atau telah terjadi dan masih ada hubungannya dengan sekarang. 2. Untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang telah selesai terjadi, pada waktu yang tidak tertentu (indefinite time) sebelum waktu sekarang. 3. Untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa atau kejadian yang selesai pada waktu singkat ataupun baru saja terjadi.B. Keterangan waktu 1. For …. - For several minutes - For (an hour, two hours ….) - For (a day, two days ….) - For (a week, two weeks ….) - For (a year, 2 years ….) 2. Since - since 1 o’clock …. - since last (week ….) - since … ago - since last (month, year) - since a week ago - since (January ….) - since last (friday ….) 3. already 11. at last 4. yet (-) 12. before 5. never 13. several times 6. ever (?) 14. once, twice, three times …. 7. recently 8. just 9. lately 10. finally 7
  8. 8. C. Susunan kalimat 1. Positive (+) (+) Subject + has/have + V III Subject has/have Verb III Object I written a story You bought a shirt have We cleaned the room They played tennis He gone to school She has given a present It swum very fast 2. Negative sentence (-) (-) Subject + has/have + not + verb III Subject has/have not Verb III Object I written a story You bought a shirt have We cleaned the room They not played tennis He gone to school She has given a present It swum very fast 3. Interrogative (?) (?) Have/Has + Subject + V III ? Has/Have Subject Verb III Object I written a story You bought a shirt Have We cleaned the room They played tennis He gone to school Has She given a present It swum very fast 8
  9. 9. UNIT IV PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE (Bentuk sekarang selesai sedang berlangsung)A. Penggunaan 1. Untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa atau perbuatan yang dimulai pada waktu lampau dan masih berlangsung sampai sekarang, bahkan mungkin sampai waktu yang akan datang. 2. Untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa atau perbuatan yang dilakukan pada waktu lampau secara berulang-ulang sampai sekarang.B. Keterangan waktu 1. for … - menyatakan lamanya atau jangka waktu peristiwa (for + a duration time) 2. since …. - menyatakan saat suatu perbuatan terjadi/mulai (since + a particular time). 3. long 4. all the day 5. the whole dayC. Susunan kalimat 1. Positive (+) (+) Subject + have/has + been + Ving + Object Subject has/have been Verb III Object I writing a story You buying a shirt have We cleaning the room They been playing tennis He going to school She has giving a present It swimming very fast 9
  10. 10. 2. Negative (-) Subject has/have not been Verb III Object I writing a story You buying a shirt have We cleaning the room They not been playing tennis He going to school She has giving a present It swimming very fast3. Interrogative (?) (?) Have/Has + S + been + V ing + Object ? Have/Has Subject been Verb III Object I writing a story? You buying a shirt? Have We cleaning the room? They been playing tennis? He going to school? Has She giving a present? It swimming very fast 10
  11. 11. UNIT V SIMPLE PAST TENSE / PAST TENSE (Bentuk lampau sederhana)A. Penggunaan 1. Untuk menyatakan peristiwa atau perbuatan yang terjadi pada waktu tertentu di masa lampau. 2. Untuk menyatakan kejadian yang berulang-ulang atau yang telah menjadi kebiasaan di waktu lampau.B. Keterangan waktu Adverb of time yang biasa digunakan dalam Simple Past Tense adalah : 1. Yesterday …. - yesterday morning - yesterday afternoon - yesterday evening - yesterday night 2. Last - last night - last century - last week - last monday - last month - last friday - last year - last January - last December 3. The day before yesterday 4. This morning 5. …ago - a few minute ago - three month ago - an hour ago - a year ago - two days ago - a century ago - a week ago 6. Just now 7. a moment ago 11
  12. 12. C. Susunan kalimat 1. Positive (+) : Subject + Verb II Subject Verb II (Past) Object I wrote a story You bought a shirt We cleaned the room They played tennis He went to school She gave a present It swam very fast 2. Negative (-) (-) Subject + did not + verb I Subject did not Verb I Object I write a story You buy a shirt We clean the room They did not play tennis He goes to school She gives a present It swims very fast 3. Interrogative (?) (?) Did + subject + Verb I ? Did Subject Verb I Object I write a story You buy a shirt We clean the room Did They play tennis He goes to school She gives a present It swims very fast 12
  13. 13. UNIT VI PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE (Bentuk lampau sedang berlangsung)A. Penggunaan 1. Untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu lampau. 2. Untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang sedang berlangsung dimana ada peristiwa lain terjadi, pada waktu lampau. 3. Untuk menerangkan peristiwa yang sedang terjadi, secara bersamaan dengan peristiwa lain di waktu lampau.B. Keterangan waktu Keterangan waktu untuk Past Continuous Tense antara lain : - … when : ketika - while : sementara - … as : ketika - the whole day yesterday - all day yesterday - all (morning, night)C. Susunan kalimat 1. Positive (+) : Subject + was/were + V-ing Subject be 2 Verb I + ing Object I was writing a story You buying a shirt We were cleaning the room They playing tennis He going to school She was giving a present It swimming very fast 13
  14. 14. 2. Negative (-) : Subject + was/were + not + Ving Subject be 2 not Verb I + ing Object I was writing a story You buying a shirt We were cleaning the room They not playing tennis He going to school She was giving a present It swimming very fast3. Interrogative (?) Was/were + Subject + verb ing ? Was/ Were Subject Verb I + ing Object Was I writing a story? You buying a shirt? Were We cleaning the room? They playing tennis? He going to school? Was She giving a present? It swimming very fast? 14
  15. 15. UNIT VII PAST PERFECT TENSE (Bentuk lampau telah selesai)A. Penggunaan : 1. Untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa atau perbuatan yang telah terjadi sebelum peristiwa lain terjadi di waktu lampau. 2. Untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa pada saat dan berlangsung sampai saat yang lain pada waktu lampau. 3. Untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa atau perbuatan yang terjadi pada waktu tertentu di saat lampau. 4. Untuk menyatakan alas an atau jawaban dari peristiwa yang terjadi di waktu lampau (Simple Past Tense)B. Keterangan waktu : Keterangan waktu tense ini adalah : - after … - … before - … when - as soon as - by … - by the end of - by the time - by 1 o’clock yesterdayC. Susunan kalimat : 1. Positive (+) : Subject + Had + V III Subject had V III Object I written a story You bought a shirt had We cleaned the room They played tennis 15
  16. 16. He gone to school She had given a present It swum very fast2. Negative (-) + had + not + V III Subject be 2 not Verb III Object I written a story You bought a shirt We cleaned the room They had not played tennis He gone to school She given a present It swum very fast3. Interrogative (?) Had + Subject + Verb III ? Had Subject V III Object I written a story? You bought a shirt? We cleaned the room? Had They played tennis? He gone to school? She given a present? It swum very fast? 16
  17. 17. UNIT VIII PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE (Bentuk lampau selesai sedang berlangsung)A. Penggunaan : Untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa atau kejadian yang telah terjadi sedang berjalan langsung, ketika peristiwa lain terjadi di waktu lampau.B. Keterangan waktu : Keterangan waktu Past Perfect Continuous tense, hampir sama penggunaannya dan saling bergantian dengan Past Perfect tense jadi yang dipentingkan tergantung kontek kalimat dalam pembicaraan. - … when : ketika - … by last : menjelang … yang lalu - … by yesterday : menjelang kemarinC. Susunan kalimat : 1. Positive (+) : (+) Subject + had + been + V ing Subject had been Verb ing Object I writing a story You buying a shirt We cleaning the room They had been playing tennis He going to school She giving a present It swimming very fast 17
  18. 18. 2. Negative (-) : (-) Subject + had not + been + V ing Subject had not been Verb ing Object I writing a story You buying a shirt We cleaning the room They had not been playing tennis He going to school She giving a present It swimming very fast3. Interrogative (?) (?) Had + Subject + been + V ing ? Had Subject been Verb ing Object I writing a story? You buying a shirt? We cleaning the room? Had They been playing tennis? He going to school? She giving a present? It swimming very fast? 18
  19. 19. UNIT IX FUTURE TENSE/ PRESENT FUTURE TENSE (Bentuk akan datang)A. Penggunaan : 1. Future Tense “will” : a. Untuk menyatakan kejadian/peristiwa yang akan datang dan memutuskannya kejadian itu pada saat berbicara. b. Untuk menawarkan melakukan sesuatu. c. Untuk menyatakan suatu janji melakukan sesuatu. d. Untuk meminta seseorang melakukan sesuatu. e. Untuk meramalkan peristiwa yang akan terjadi. f. Untuk menyatakan suatu kejadian/ peristiwa yang akan pasti terjadi. 2. Future Tense “shall” : a. Untuk menyatakan penawaran ataupun pemberian saran-saran. 3. Future tense “be going to” : a. Untuk menyatakan kejadian yang akan terjadi dan sudah pernah diputuskan untuk melakukannya. b. Untuk menyatakan kejadian / peristiwa yang disebabkan adanya kejadian / peristiwa yang menunjukkan apa yang akan terjadi kemudian.B. Keterangan waktu : 1. Tomorrow … - morning - afternoon - evening - night 2. next … - next time - next Sunday 19
  20. 20. - next week - next month - next year - next January 3. tonight 4. the day after tomorrow 5. soon 6. later 7. two, three more daysC. Susunan kalimat : 1. Positive (+) a. (+) Subject + shall/will + V I Subject shall/will Verb I Object I Shall/will write a story You buy a shirt We clean the room They play tennis He will goes to school She gives a present It swims very fast b. (+) Subject + be + going to + V I Subject be going to Verb I Object I am write a story You buy a shirt We are clean the room They going to play tennis He goes to school She is gives a present It swims very fast 2. Negative (-) 20
  21. 21. a. Subject + shall/will + not + V I Subject shall/will not Verb I Object I Shall/will write a story You buy a shirt We clean the room They not play tennis He will goes to school She gives a present It swims very fast b. Subject + be not + going to + VI Subject be not going to Verb I Object I am not write a story You buy a shirt We are not clean the room They going to play tennis He goes to school She is not gives a present It swims very fast3. Interrogative (?) a. Shall/will + Subject + V I ? Will Subject Verb I Object I write a story? You buy a shirt? We clean the room? will They play tennis? He goes to school? She gives a present? It swims very fast? b. Be + Subject + going to + V I ? Be 1 Subject Verb I Object 21
  22. 22. Am I write a story? You buy a shirt?Are We clean the room? They play tennis? He goes to school?Is She gives a present? It swims very fast? UNIT X 22
  23. 23. FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE (Bentuk akan datang sedang berlangsung)A. Penggunaan Untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa atau kejadian yang akan sedang berlangsung di waktu tertentu (specified time) di masa mendatang.B. Keterangan waktu 1. at the same time … - tomorrow - next Friday 2. at this time … - next month - next week 3. at … o’clock tomorrow 4. at … o’clock next … 5. by this time … - tomorrowC. Susunan kalimat 1. Positive (+) Subject + will/shall + be + V ing Subject shall/will be Verb ing Object I Shall writing a story You buying a shirt We cleaning the room They be playing tennis He will going to school She giving a present It swimming very fast 2. Negative (-) (-) Subject + will/shall + not + be + V ing 23
  24. 24. Subject shall/will not be Verb ing Object I Shall writing a story You buying a shirt We cleaning the room They not be playing tennis He will going to school She giving a present It swimming very fast3. Interrogative (?) (?) Will/shall + Subject + be + V ing ? shall/will Subject be Verb ing Object Shall/will I writing a story? You buying a shirt? We cleaning the room? They be playing tennis? will He going to school? She giving a present? It swimming very fast? UNIT XI FUTURE PERFECT TENSE 24
  25. 25. (Bentuk akan datang telah selesai)A. Penggunaan Untuk menyatakan suatu kejadian/ peristiwa yang akan sudah selesai dilakukan / dikerjakan di waktu mendatang.B. Keterangan waktu - By … (8 o’clock tomorrow …) (3 o’clock next …) (this time tomorrow …) (the beginning of next) (the end of next …) - by now - by nextC. Susunan kalimat 1. Positive (+) (+) Subject + will/shall + have + V III Subject shall/will have Verb III Object I Shall written a story You bought a shirt We cleaned the room They have played tennis He will gone to school She given a present It swum very fast 2. Negative (-) (-) Subject + will/shall + not + have + V III 25
  26. 26. Subject shall/will not have Verb ing Object I Shall writing a story You buying a shirt We cleaning the room They not have playing tennis He will going to school She giving a present It swimming very fast3. Interrogative (?) (?) Will/Shall + Subject + have + V III ? shall/will Subject have Verb III Object Shall I written a story? We bought a shirt? You cleaned the room? They have played tennis? Will He gone to school? She given a present? It swum very fast? 26
  27. 27. UNIT XII FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE (Bentuk akan datang selesai sedang berlangsung)A. Penggunaan Untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa/ kejadian yang telah sedang berlangsung beberapa lama di waktu yang akan datang dan ada kemungkinan dilanjutkan pada waktu yang akan datang ketika peristiwa lain terjadi.B. Keterangan waktu Keterangan waktu dari Future Perfect Continuous tense, merupakan gabungan dari Future Perfect tense (by … next/tomorrow) dengan Present Perfect Continuous tense (for). - by next week/ month/ year + for … - by … o’clock + for … - by this time tomorrow/ next … + for …C. Susunan kalimat 1. Positive (+) (+) Subject + will/shall + have + been + V ing Subject shall/will have been Verb ing Object I Shall writing a story You buying a shirt We cleaning the room They have been playing tennis He will going to school She giving a present It swimming very fast 27
  28. 28. 2. Negative (-) (-) Subject + will/shall + not + been + V ing Subject shall/will not have been Verb ing Object I Shall writing a story We buying a shirt You cleaning the room They not have been playing tennis He will going to school She giving a present It swimming very fast3. Interrogative (?) (?) Will/Shall + Subject + have + been + V ing ? shall/will Subject have been Verb ing Object Shall I writing a story? We buying a shirt? You cleaning the room? They have been playing tennis? Will He going to school? She giving a present? It swimming very fast? 28
  29. 29. UNIT XIII PAST FUTURE TENSE (Bentuk akan datang di masa lampau)A. Penggunaan 1. Untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa atau kejadian yang akan dilakukan di masa lampau, tepi rencana peristiwa tersebut kenyataannya tidak terlaksana. 2. Untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa atau kejadian yang merupakan tawaran atau perumpamaan secara sopan kepada orang lain.B. Susunan kalimat 1. Positive (+) (+) Subject + would/should + V I Subject would/should Verb I Object I should write a story You buy a shirt We clean the room They play tennis He would goes to school She gives a present It swims very fast 2. Negative (-) (-) Subject + would/should + not + V I Subject would/should not Verb I Object I should write a story You buy a shirt We clean the room They not play tennis He would goes to school She gives a present It swims very fast 29
  30. 30. 3. Interrogative (?) (?) Would/Should + Subject + V I would/should Subject Verb I Object should I write a story You buy a shirt We clean the room They play tennis would He goes to school She gives a present It swims very fast 30
  31. 31. UNIT XIV PAST FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE (Bentuk akan datang sedang berlangsung di masa lampau)A. Penggunaan Untuk menyatakan peristiwa/ perbuatan yang akan sedang berlangsung pada waktu tertentu di waktu lampau.B. Keterangan waktu - at 6 o’clock yesterday - on Monday last week - on May last year - by this time yesterday - by 9 o’clock last … (Friday, week …)C. Susunan kalimat a. Positive (+) Subject + would/should + be + V ing Subject would/should be Verb ing Object I should writing a story You buying a shirt We cleaning the room They be playing tennis He would going to school She giving a present It swimming very fast b. Negative (-) 31
  32. 32. Subject + would/should + not + be + V ing Subject would/should not be Verb ing Object I should writing a story We buying a shirt You cleaning the room They not be playing tennis He would going to school She giving a present It swimming very fastc. Interrogative (?) Would/should + Subject + be + V ing ? would/should Subject be Verb ing Object should I writing a story? You buying a shirt? We cleaning the room? They be playing tennis? would He going to school? She giving a present? It swimming very fast? UNIT XV 32
  33. 33. PAST FUTURE PERFECT TENSE (Bentuk akan datang telah selesai di masa lampau)A. Penggunaan 1. Untuk menyatakan suatu pengandaian yang tidak mungkin terjadi karena syaratnya pasti tidak terpenuhi. 2. Untuk menyatakan suatu perbuatan atau peristiwa yang akan telah selesai di masa lampau atau yang seharusnya sudah selesai di waktu lampau.B. Keterangan waktu - Past Future Perfect tense if Past Perfect TenseC. Susunan Kalimat 1. Positive (+) Subject + would + have + V III Subject would have Verb III Object I written a story We bought a shirt You cleaned the room They would have played tennis He gone to school She given a present It swum very fast 2. Negative (-) Subject + would + not + have + V III Subject would not have Verb III Object I written a story We bought a shirt would not have You cleaned the room They played tennis 33
  34. 34. He gone to school She would not have given a present It swum very fast3. Interrogative (?) (?) Would + Subject + have + V III ? would Subject have Verb III Object Should I written a story You bought a shirt We cleaned the room They have played tennis would He gone to school She given a present It swum very fast UNIT XVI 34
  35. 35. PAST FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE (Bentuk akan datang selesai sedang berlangsung di waktu lampau)A. Penggunaan Untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa/ kejadian yang seharusnya telah sedang berlngsung pada saat tertentu.B. Keterangan waktu Keterangan waktu tense ini merupakan bentuk past dan Future Perfect Continuous tense. - for … + by … yesterday/last/ago …C. Susunan kalimat 1. Positive (+) (+) Subject + would/shall + have + been + V ing Subject would have been Verb ing Object I should writing a story We buying a shirt You cleaning the room They have been playing tennis He would going to school She giving a present It swimming very fast 2. Negative (-) (-) Subject + would/shall + not + have + been + V ing Subject would not have been Verb ing Object I writing a story We buying a shirt would not have been You cleaning the room They playing tennis 35
  36. 36. He going to school She would not have been giving a present It swimming very fast3. Interrogative (?) (?) Would/Shall + Subject + have + been + V ing would Subject have been Verb ing Object Should I writing a story? We buying a shirt? We cleaning the room? They have been playing tennis? would He going to school? She giving a present? It swimming very fast? 36

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