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1 2,3,4 Europ Conquest And Colonization


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1 2,3,4 Europ Conquest And Colonization

  1. 1. The European Conquest and Colonization of the Americas
  2. 2. Five Nations started colonies in the New World <ul><li>Spain – in South, Central and North America </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal – in Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>France – In Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Great Britain – along the East Coast of North America </li></ul><ul><li>The Dutch – On Long Island </li></ul>
  3. 3. Cycle of Conquest & Colonization Explorers Conquistadores Missionaries Permanent Settlers Official European Colony!
  4. 4. Ferdinand Magellan & the First Circumnavigation of the World: Early 16c
  5. 5. European Explorations “”
  6. 6. Christófo Colón [1451-1506]
  7. 7. Columbus’ Four Voyages
  8. 8. The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 & The Pope’s Line of Demarcation
  9. 9. Fernando Cortes The First Spanish Conquests: The Aztecs Montezuma II vs.
  10. 10. The Death of Montezuma II
  11. 11. Mexico Surrenders to Cortés
  12. 12. Francisco Pizarro The First Spanish Conquests: The Incas Atahualpa vs.
  13. 13. Father Bartolomé de Las Casas <ul><li>New Laws --> 1542 </li></ul>
  14. 14. The “Columbian Exchange” <ul><li>Squash </li></ul><ul><li>Avocado </li></ul><ul><li>Peppers </li></ul><ul><li>Sweet Potatoes </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>Pumpkin </li></ul><ul><li>Tobacco </li></ul><ul><li>Quinine </li></ul><ul><li>Cocoa </li></ul><ul><li>Pineapple </li></ul><ul><li>Cassava </li></ul><ul><li>POTATO </li></ul><ul><li>Peanut </li></ul><ul><li>TOMATO </li></ul><ul><li>Vanilla </li></ul><ul><li>MAIZE </li></ul><ul><li>Syphilis </li></ul><ul><li>Olive </li></ul><ul><li>COFFEE BEAN </li></ul><ul><li>Banana </li></ul><ul><li>Rice </li></ul><ul><li>Onion </li></ul><ul><li>Turnip </li></ul><ul><li>Honeybee </li></ul><ul><li>Barley </li></ul><ul><li>Grape </li></ul><ul><li>Peach </li></ul><ul><li>SUGAR CANE </li></ul><ul><li>Oats </li></ul><ul><li>Citrus Fruits </li></ul><ul><li>Pear </li></ul><ul><li>Wheat </li></ul><ul><li>HORSE </li></ul><ul><li>Cattle </li></ul><ul><li>Sheep </li></ul><ul><li>Pigs </li></ul><ul><li>Smallpox </li></ul><ul><li>Flu </li></ul><ul><li>Typhus </li></ul><ul><li>Measles </li></ul><ul><li>Malaria </li></ul><ul><li>Diptheria </li></ul><ul><li>Whooping Cough </li></ul><ul><li>Trinkets </li></ul><ul><li>Liquor </li></ul><ul><li>GUNS </li></ul>
  15. 15. Why would the 'Columbian Exchange' be considered the tsunami of unintentional &quot;bio-terrorism&quot;?? Docs. 1- 4
  16. 16. The Spanish <ul><li>Gain land and riches </li></ul><ul><li>Gain converts (Catholic) </li></ul><ul><li>Conquered and destroyed native cultures (Encomeinda system) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Spain in the New World <ul><li>Motivated by the 3 G’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>God, Glory and Gold </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Destroyed native culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encomienda system </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Mercantilism <ul><li>Economic activity should enhance power of the state (more gold and silver). </li></ul>
  19. 19. Mercantilism An economic policy of the major trading nations from the 16th to the 18th cent.,based on the premise that national wealth and power were best served by increasing exports and collecting precious metals in return. State action, an essential feature of the mercantile system, was used to accomplish its purposes-to sell more than it bought to accumulate bullion and raw materials.
  20. 20. Under a mercantilist policy, a government exercised much control over economic life by regulating production, encouraging foreign trade, levying duties on imports to gain revenue, making treaties to obtain exclusive trading privileges, and exploiting the commerce of the colonies.
  21. 21. Mercantilism <ul><li>Favorable balance of trade – Spanish try to control access to wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Mining (gold and silver) </li></ul><ul><li>Control commerce. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Fight for control <ul><li>Spanish crown, colonists, and church fight for Indian cheap labor. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Foundation of economy – Indian labor. <ul><li>Indian slavery and coercion – Indians paid tribute of gold and silver and worked for almost nothing or nothing. </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Congregacion <ul><li>Churches attempt to control Indians </li></ul><ul><li>Placed Indians on reservations </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Missions <ul><li>Once Indians were concentrated, Missions were established to convert and westernize the natives </li></ul><ul><li>Church schools </li></ul>
  26. 26. The Influence of the Colonial Catholic Church Guadalajara Cathedral Our Lady of Guadalupe Spanish Mission
  27. 27. Encomienda <ul><li>An assignment of Indians who were to serve the Spanish grantee (colonist) with tribute and labor…Indian slavery! </li></ul>
  28. 28. Encomienda System = Feudal System <ul><li>Headed by the Viceroy – a noble </li></ul><ul><li>Social hierarchy based on race </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peninsulares </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creoles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mestizos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mulattoes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Presidio – fort used to defend the mission – castle </li></ul>
  29. 29. Haciendas <ul><li>As the encomienda system began to fail colonists created plantations called Haciendas – moved towards capitalism </li></ul><ul><li>Tribute was no longer given </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery still existed </li></ul>
  30. 30. Spanish Colonial Class System Peninsulares Creoles Mestizos Mulattos Native Indians Black Slaves
  31. 31. Treasures from the Americas!
  32. 32. The English Transplantations: Motives for Settlement <ul><li>Commercial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>European belief in mercantilism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find wealth or escape poverty (enclosure movement) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Religious </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Puritans wanted to escape persecution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish religious communities </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. The English <ul><li>Commercial ventures ($) </li></ul><ul><li>Joint Stock Companies </li></ul><ul><li>Religious freedom (Protestants) </li></ul><ul><li>Friendly at first – later fought natives for land </li></ul>Must Know
  34. 34. The English Transplantations: Plymouth <ul><li>Pilgrims </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separatists looking for religious freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Created Mayflower Compact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government gets power from the people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relations with the natives </li></ul>
  35. 35. New England <ul><li>Pilgrims (1620) were religious dissenters who wanted to separate from the Church of England. They faced fines, imprisonment or death in England for practicing their religion </li></ul><ul><li>Came for Religious Freedom </li></ul>
  36. 36. New England <ul><li>The Pilgrims were headed for Virginia, but were blown off course in a storm, and ended up in Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><li>Created the Mayflower Compact – a document that says the government gets its power from the people </li></ul>Must Know Must Know
  37. 37. The English Transplantations: Massachusetts Bay <ul><li>Puritans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to purify church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faced persecution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ City on a hill” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A religious model for the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intolerant of dissent </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. New England <ul><li>Puritans (1630) also sought religious freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to create Cities on a hill – religious cities that would serve as a model for others </li></ul><ul><li>Covenant Communities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>intolerant of dissent </li></ul></ul>Must Know Must Know
  39. 39. New England <ul><li>Puritans were governed by the male members of the church </li></ul><ul><li>Town meetings – discussions about church rules that eventually became legislative assemblies </li></ul>Must Know
  40. 40. The English Transplantations: Jamestown <ul><li>The first permanent English settlement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonists were “gentlemen” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expected to find gold </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Poor location and management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Located for defense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smith saved colony from disaster </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Jamestown <ul><li>Jamestown started as a Joint-Stock company, but it was poorly managed and later a Royal Colony (controlled by the king) </li></ul><ul><li>Jamestown was founded in 1607 </li></ul>Must Know Must Know
  42. 42. The English Transplantations: Jamestown <ul><li>By 1609 it became a Joint-stock investment (Virginia Company) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tobacco made the colony profitable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Getting to the colony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indentures& Headrights </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Jamestown <ul><li>Jamestown nearly failed due to lack of supplies, poor weather and poor location 60 miles up the James River in a swampy area (Defense). </li></ul>
  44. 44. Jamestown <ul><li>Their neighbors were the Powhattan Indians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pocahontas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The English mistreated the Indians and used force to get what they wanted. This angered the Indians who refused to help the settlers </li></ul>
  45. 45. What saved Jamestown? <ul><li>Tobacco was grown and the colony began to make a profit. Brought more settlers and $ </li></ul>Must Know
  46. 46. France in the New World <ul><li>Commercial Incentives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fishing and fur trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Northwest Passage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adopted native customs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Married into families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learned language </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. The French <ul><li>Fishing, Fur Trapping </li></ul><ul><li>Looking for the Northwest Passage </li></ul><ul><li>Gain converts (Catholic) </li></ul><ul><li>Traded w/ natives (partners) </li></ul><ul><li>Married Native American women </li></ul>
  48. 48. Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
  49. 49. Slave Ship
  50. 50. “ Coffin” Position Below Deck
  51. 51. African Captives Thrown Overboard
  52. 52. Slaves Working in a Brazilian Sugar Mill
  53. 53. Sacrifice of the First-Born by Theodore de Bry
  54. 54. European Empires in the Americas