Brand map


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A unique road map for your brand

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Brand map

  1. 1. a model of brand graphic devices logos logotypes crests typographic geometric representational graphic devices may be deployed as monograms static identity systemsOverview More than a name or symbol Measuring brand flags with fixed rules TargetThis diagram is a model of brand, a term People speaking informally about brand An important aspect of managing a brand United Airlinesoften used in business, marketing, and often use the term to mean the name or is measuring it. The diagram contains a trade dress package graphics Tiffany’s blue boxdesign. The diagram defines brand by symbol of a company. While this shorthand section on measuring brands. People who Gateway’s spotted box kinetic identity systems 3mapping related concepts and examples. is convenient, it misses an important truth. understand brand development often with rules allowing variation A brand is at least two things: a name and disagree on how to describe and measure package form Coke’s hour-glass bottle MTV a perception of what the name means. it, and experts often use different terms. L’eggs shell carton MIT Media Lab 1Concept maps I propose three terms: position, reach, and reputation. These three dimensions seem product form iconic products such asConcept maps are webs of linked terms name to cover the subject as simply as possible. Apple iMacthat help us visualize our mental models Volkswagen Beetleand clarify our thinking. In concept maps, 2verbs connect nouns to form propositions. Brands as signs uniforms Boy Scout uniformsExamples and details also accompany the the Swiss Guards’ uniformsterms. More important terms receive typo- brand The idea that a brand is both a name andgraphic emphasis; less important ones and a perception parallels Saussure’s model of form of buildings iconic buildings such asexamples are grayed back and pushed to a sign. Saussure describes signs as having McDonald’s stores with golden archesthe periphery. two aspects: signifier and signified. A brand Transamerica’s pyramid tower name is a signifier and the perception of perception what it means is the signified. form of vehicles Cushman carts driven by meter maidsOrganization the brown UPS trucksThe diagram attempts to present a com- signifier nameprehensive model of brand. It is framedaround four main ideas: Creating a great customer experience spokesmen celebrity endorsers Bill Cosby for Jello1) a brand is more than a name or symbol2) creating a great customer experience is Of course, perception of a brand does not founders / managers Martha Stewart for herselfthe essence of good branding arise on its own. Rather, it grows out of Dave Thomas for Wendy’s sign brand3) perceptions of a brand can be measured experience with a product. Here, product Bill Gates for Microsoft4) brands are a form of sign is used in a broad sense incorporating the results of many activities commonly as- invented characters human-like figures, which inhabit real or fantasy worlds sociated with marketing. Likewise, experi- based on ence means here any point at which the product – the M&Ms men signified perception contact is made with a potential customer. animals – Morris The Cat people – Cap’n Crunch can be symbols magical creatures – Keebler Elves Peirce suggests a more complex model of signs. His model has three parts: object, mascots the GOP elephant representamen, and interpretant. The concept of brand as formed by the triad: product, name, and perception, parallels symbols do not represent brands words abbreviations Coke for Coca-Cola Peirce’s three-part model. directly; instead, symbols call to GM for General Motors product experience perception mind the name of a brand which MSFT for Microsoft in turn calls to mind an associated perception representamen name slogans FDR’s “Happy days are here again” most brand names and symbols jingles Wrigley’s “Double your pleasure; double your fun” can be converted to property by represent applying to a government to establish tag lines Nike’s “Just do it” In this model, a brand manager (or steward) trademark ownership; brand is responsible for any item which comes into contact with customers. By controlling all once the government approves a trademark application, a trademark sounds anthems The Star-Spangled Banner the touch points, the manager tries to ensure object interpretant that customers have a great experience. owner may prevent other people from using the trademark without auditory icons Intel Inside TV ad signature product experience perception permission AOL’s “You’ve got mail” To complete the framework of the model, the Dolby THX’s “sonic boom” set of terms related to brand must be linked telephone dial tone to the set of terms related to experience. Perception, common to both sets, is the link. theme music Henry Mancini’s Pink Panther theme name signifier representamen a brand name is a signifier; signifiers are those things brand we hear or see that bring to mind the signified can be product experience perception most products or aspects of a product can also serve as signifiers of the brand name existing words things (or ideas) describing products analogies for products superlatives and qualities Digital, Huggies, Newsweek Oracle, Pampers, Sprint All, Best, General, Paramount, unrelated to the product Apple, Camel, Frog, Thrasher people surnames Dell, Ford, McDonald’s (often founders) first names Aldus, Ben & Jerry’s groups Quaker Oats, Roman Meal places specific spot Parliament, Wall Street Journal (often of origin) city or town Calistoga, Corning region Eastern, Great Plains represents country British Airways continent North American Van Lines larger still Global, World, Universal coined words analogous Ampex, Compaq, Navistar arbitrary Formica, Kodak, Xerox, Unix abbreviations contractions Fiberglas, Intel, Mobil, Wal-Mart acronyms Alcoa, Nabisco, NYNEX, Texaco through observation and analysis, initials CBS, KFC, IBM user experiences can form the basis for improving products and may even hybrids Bell Atlantic, Union Pacific shape the stewards’ goals and values sign brands are signs; signs are the combination of a signifier and a signified; one cannot be thought of without the other imagine can be bystewards promise brand measuredbrand stewards hold the brand in trust, brand stewards shape products brand promise is brands can grow out of: perceptions of a brand can be measured audiences may be segmented in terms ofboth for the financial owners and also by managing marketing and the audience expectation of a brand products and aggregated to give an overall view; based on:for the emotional owners – those development which may include that is desired by the brand’s stewards; Coke, Frisbee perceptions can also be correlated to demographicspeople who experience the brand these steps: services various audiences psychographics sometimes thought of as Amazon, Citigroup technographicsa brand steward is anyone associated perceive audience brand identity organizations interestswith the development or sale of a product, understand needs GE, Harvard, Baptists attitudesincluding: analyze options celebrities usage of a product what’s delightful real peoplesenior management what’s viable Elizabeth Taylor 4 builds rental car companies guidesbrand managers what’s buildable fictional characters position category defines the set of competing brands Avis, Budget, Hertz, National, Thrifty, etc.product managers choose direction Mickey Mouse measures of a brandmarketing managersengineers define big idea or concept design signified events Rose Bowl in relation to other relevance of the category “do I need a car for a short time?” brands whether it matters to medesigners prototype our perception of a brand – factory workers test the experiences and expectations ranking within the category leading brand, competes on qualitysalespeople iterate we associate with it – are its compared to other brands Hertzcustomer support people build signifiedsales partners release major brands the signified is co-created Avis, National can teach by both brand stewards who object provide products (and messages interpretant commodity brands, compete on cost about them) and individuals who Thrifty, Budget, etc. experience the products differentiation for example, Apple, Dell, and Gateway degree of similarity to other brands are computer brands; Apple is less like Dell; Dell is more like Gateway delivers shapes product experience shapes perception reach extent of recognition unaided recognition percent of people in a given geography “name the brands you associate measures of a brand with rental cars,” first and later mentions in terms of numbers of people affected aided recognition “have you ever heard of Hertz?”brand stewards have goals for their brands product is used here in a broad sense brand building begins at any the experience people have with the experience may brand perception isoften, an important goal is to influence and incorporates the traditional four point of contact with a potential a product shapes their perception frustrate, satisfy, or delight the audience expectation frequency of exposureperception of a brand in a way that induces Ps of marketing: product, price, customer of a brand achieved by the brand’s stewards; number of impressions per unit time placement, and promotionpurchase leaving any contact to chance direct experience while experience shapes perception sometimes thought of as frequency of usejoining creation of the product creates a risk of a poor experience considering a purchase perception also shapes experience brand image e.g., average visits per week developadoption designing the product visiting a point of sale function and behavior purchasing a product likewise an individual’s values, goals, duration of use skin and form setting up the product needs, and expectations also shape e.g., average length of visitgoals for brands may be expressed in interface using the product perception of experience; documentation maintaining the product for example, market sharebusiness plans estimating packaging displaying the product in a blind taste test Pepsi beat Coke percent of use within a category sales manufacturing the product in a labeled test Coke beat Pepsi market share assembly process indirect experience profitability quality control what friends say return on investment providing customer service what experts say guarantees and return policies what competitors say reputation emotional attributes affinity identify with at the highest level,positioning statements which describe phone centers what the stewards say trust prefer affinity results in a passion brand product benefits web sites e.g., ads, PR measures of a brand respect like / accept or lifestyle brand unique selling propositions how others use the product in terms of attributes ignore where the brand becomes desired brand attributes price of the product e.g., buy, display, etc. that people assign to it reject a means of self expression desired brand personality setting the suggested retail price (SRP) how others react e.g., Nike or Catholicism creating volume discounts a product may be related to to display of the product creating special offers more than one brand: rational attributes value of product consistency of experience placement of the product (controlling the distribution process) opening direct showrooms Sony under a homogeneous master brand employed where products change frequently and must work together IBM individuals personality (tone or character) clarity of the brand’s purpose described along dimensions such as Nike Microsoft young vs mature opening a web site Sony individuals compare their needs feminine vs masculine opening a store-within-a-store with their expectation of one or small vs large Ralph Lauren in a mixed brand family more brands in a category; quiet vs loud placing signage which may indicate confusion about strategy playful vs serious setting up merchandising displays for example, General Motors’ brand family they decide which brand most setting franchise standards Buick closely matches their needs; training salespeople Chevrolet GM Truck if there is a match, they may promotion of the product Saturn other brand measure taxonomies: Brand Attributes Brand Asset Valuator purchase (alternatives to position, reach, reputation) relevant strength influence through public relations activities press releases in a heterogeneous brand system join appealing relevance analyst briefings employed for commodities to increase adopt differentiated differentiation launch events shelf space and sales use consistent stature by creating and running paid advertising for example, Proctor & Gamble makes display quality knowledge TV both Tide and Cheer but does not identify good value esteem radio them as coming from P&G if there’s not a match, print they may look for new options - from G2, - from Young & Rubicam outdoor as a co-brand or modify their expectations Gaynelle Grover online simple co-brand by developing word-of-mouth American Airlines MasterCard through other viral activities an ingredient brand Intel Inside on a Compaq Computer a provenance brand Appellation Margaux Controlée Made in Japan an endorsement brand Underwriters Laboratories a compatibility brand MacOS external systemsacknowledgements: partial list of sources: external systems play a role in shaping individual’sRic Grefe, Director of the AIGA, suggested 1this project after discussions at the AIGA Joseph Novak and Bob Gowin values“Advance for Design” special interest group Learning How to Learn, 1985 goals 5 6meeting in Santa Fe in the summer of 1999. needs Maslow’s list of human needs Malinowski’s list of human needs and responses 2 expectationsI distributed early versions at the Design Ferdinand de Saussure physiological metabolism — commissariatManagement Institute Branding Conference Course in General Linguistics, 1959 (external systems also affect brand safety and security reproduction — kinshipin the summer of 2000 and then distributed stewards) belongingness and love bodily comforts — sheltermore finished versions at the summer 2000 Charles Sanders Peirce esteem safety — protectionAdvance for Design meeting in Telluride. Philosophical Writings of Peirce, 1986 cultural systems such as cognitive movement — activitiesThe AIGA published that version in its language aesthetic growth — trainingjournal, Gain, in the fall of 2000. Umberto Eco political systems self-actualization health – hygiene A Theory of Semiotics, 1979 economic structuresMany people have contributed to the ideas available technologiespresented here. I am especially indebted to 3Gaynelle Grover Chuck Byrne the physical environmentPeter Russert “Kinetic Identity,” Print Magazine, natural resourcesJohn Cain May/June 1987 weatherClement Mok disastersDavid Brown 4Chris Pullman Jack Trout and Al Ries,Judy Logan Positioning: The Battle for Your Mind,Lynn Carpenter 1993Paul PangaroBeverly Volz 5 Abraham Maslow Motivation and Personality, 1954 March 25, 2001I hope that you find the model useful.I invite feedback. You can reach me via 6 Copyright ©email at Bronislaw Malinowski Dubberly Design Office A Scientific Theory of Culture 2501 Harrison Street, #7- Hugh Dubberly and Other Essays, 1944 San Francisco, CA 94110 415 648 9799