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The Skeletal System

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The Skeletal System

  1. 1. 17.2 The Skeletal System Life Science, Ms. Wells
  2. 2. Functions of Skeletal System <ul><li>Provides all movement </li></ul><ul><li>Works with Muscles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skeletal System + Muscular System = Musculoskeletal System </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Bone Shapes <ul><li>Long Bone = in arms & legs </li></ul><ul><li>Short Bone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in feet & hands </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Bones Shapes <ul><li>Irregular Bones = spinal column (vertebrae) </li></ul><ul><li>Flat Bones = ribs, skull </li></ul>
  5. 5. Bones are Connective Tissue!
  6. 6. Bone Types <ul><li>Compact Bone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very strong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dense calcium network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spongy Bone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lightweight, STRONG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full of holes (for blood vessels) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle layer </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Calcium Network
  8. 8. Spongy Bone
  9. 9. Joints <ul><li>Function: allow for movement or to create a seal between 2 bones </li></ul><ul><li>Definition: any place where 2 bones meet </li></ul>
  10. 10. Immovable Joints <ul><li>NO movement/motion </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Skull </li></ul><ul><li>Bones in skull are fused together to seal brain inside </li></ul>
  11. 11. Slightly Movable Joints <ul><li>Can “give” a little, more flexible </li></ul><ul><li>But usually don’t move much </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Ribs </li></ul>
  12. 12. Freely Movable Joints <ul><li>Bones glide back & forth past each other </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of motion </li></ul><ul><li>Many types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hinge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pivot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ball and Socket </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Freely Movable: PIVOT Joint <ul><li>Motion: twist a door knob </li></ul><ul><li>Example: wrist </li></ul>
  14. 14. Freely Movable: HINGE Joint <ul><li>Motion: open and close only one way </li></ul><ul><li>Example: knee, elbow </li></ul>
  15. 15. Freely Movable: BALL AND SOCKET <ul><li>Motion: throwing a baseball </li></ul><ul><li>Example: shoulder, thigh bone to hips </li></ul>
  16. 16. Ligaments <ul><li>Connective tissue that holds bones together @ joints </li></ul><ul><li>Stretchy </li></ul>
  17. 17. Osteoporosis <ul><li>Osteo- = bone </li></ul><ul><li>-porosis = break down, porous, holes </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of density in bone </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium network thins </li></ul><ul><li>Bones become brittle </li></ul><ul><li>Effects women more than men </li></ul>
  18. 18. “ Soft Spot” or Fontanelle <ul><li>Immovable skull joints are not entirely fused in infants </li></ul><ul><li>Easier to squeeze big head out of mother </li></ul>
  19. 19. Cartilage <ul><li>Bones missing the CALCIUM network! </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible, soft </li></ul><ul><li>Example: ears, nose, lining of joints </li></ul><ul><li>All bones start out as cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Add calcium to harden = OSSIFY </li></ul>
  20. 20. Cartilage & Joints <ul><li>Cushions joints so bones don’t grind </li></ul><ul><li>Arthritis = cartilage covering bones in joints wears down which causes pain and limits movement </li></ul>
  21. 21. THE END!

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