Extension Services in India: Emerging challenges and ways forward   Rasheed Sulaiman V Centre for Research on Innovation a...
Structure <ul><li>Main arguments  </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural Extension-Evolution &Current status </li></ul><ul><li>3 c...
Main Argument 1   <ul><li>Changing nature of agriculture  </li></ul><ul><li>Many of these challenges transcend the level o...
Main argument 2 <ul><li>Extension should play a wider role: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>beyond technology dissemination  </li></...
Main argument 3 <ul><ul><li>Extension should have links with several actors   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beyond research (...
Main argument 4 <ul><li>Extension needs new theories/framework to reinvent its new mission- (systems perspectives)  </li><...
Extension system-evolution and growth <ul><li>Phase-I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution and expansion  (1952 - late 70’s) </...
Extension system-evolution and growth <ul><li>Phase II (strengthening)   </li></ul><ul><li>Training and Visit (T&V)  late ...
Extension system-evolution and growth <ul><li>Phase III- Post T&V  (early 90’s onwards)-decline  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ext...
Extension system-evolution and growth <ul><li>Phase 4 (late 90’s to now) </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural Technology Managem...
Current status-Public Sector  <ul><li>Co-ordination continues to be a big problem </li></ul><ul><li>Diminishing operationa...
<ul><li>Exclusion- disadvantaged areas and small farmers,  </li></ul><ul><li>Dependence on other farmers & input dealers h...
Current status-Private sector <ul><li>Agri-business- ITC (e-chaupal), MSSL, TKS etc </li></ul><ul><ul><li>contract farming...
Case 1 Extension-Plus <ul><li>VFPCK (Vegetable and Fruit Promotion Council, Kerala) </li></ul><ul><li>Evolved from EU fund...
Case 2- Credit-Plus <ul><li>BASIX (1996) promotion of sustainable livelihoods </li></ul><ul><li>Credit coupled with techni...
Case 3- Market-Plus: <ul><li>IDEI (International Development Enterprise, India)- “creating a sustainable market” </li></ul...
Lessons <ul><li>Broader support to the rural poor (+) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge on technology is only one component ...
Implications for extension reform <ul><li>New goals for extension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>developing the capacity of produce...
Agricultural Innovation System-actors Demand Domain Consumers, Processing companies, Commodity markets, policy bodies Rese...
Conlusions <ul><li>Broaden the mandate </li></ul><ul><li>Broaden the skills base  </li></ul><ul><li>Reconfigure patterns o...
Thanks www.innovationstudies.org www.crispindia.org
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  1. 1. Extension Services in India: Emerging challenges and ways forward Rasheed Sulaiman V Centre for Research on Innovation and Science Policy (CRISP) (South Asia Rural Innovation Policy Studies Hub) Hyderabad
  2. 2. Structure <ul><li>Main arguments </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural Extension-Evolution &Current status </li></ul><ul><li>3 cases </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons </li></ul><ul><li>Implications for extension reform </li></ul>
  3. 3. Main Argument 1 <ul><li>Changing nature of agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Many of these challenges transcend the level of individual farms and need new forms of co-ordination among various actors </li></ul><ul><li>Addressing complex issues needs interaction among a number of actors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(sustainable resource use; quality and standards; enhancing competitiveness; value addition, collective marketing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers need an integrated set of advice and services </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Main argument 2 <ul><li>Extension should play a wider role: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>beyond technology dissemination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>beyond price/market information + group formation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include addressing vulnerability and poverty, environmental issues, enterprise development, dealing with markets, financial agencies, and farmer organizations, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build networks with all the other actors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recent studies: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Farrington et al, 2002, Berdegue and Escobar, 2002; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neuchatel Group, 2002, Rivera et al, 2001, Leeuwis and van den Ban, 2004; Sulaiman and Hall, 2003, 2005; APO, 2006 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>And also………learning from on-going experiments in India </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Main argument 3 <ul><ul><li>Extension should have links with several actors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beyond research (public sector research) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology users, private companies, NGOs, market intermediaries, financial agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Public sector extension-state Dept of Agriculture (DoA) (on a decline) </li></ul><ul><li>Private sector extension is expanding, though useful, not a substitute for public provision of extension </li></ul>
  6. 6. Main argument 4 <ul><li>Extension needs new theories/framework to reinvent its new mission- (systems perspectives) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beyond “diffusion of innovations” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beyond linear transfer of technology paradigm (R-E-F) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beyond “technological determinism” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beyond “invention” and “transfer” to “innovation (generation, diffusion, adaptation and use of new knowledge) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acknowledges the role of different actors and their interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>…… .And also more funding and competent manpower </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Extension system-evolution and growth <ul><li>Phase-I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution and expansion (1952 - late 70’s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dept of Agriculture- CD,NES, IADP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ICAR- NDP…..KVKs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commodity Boards… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Media- AIR </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role – disseminate technologies developed by public sector R&D (ICAR &SAUs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrations, farmer meetings, use of media </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Extension system-evolution and growth <ul><li>Phase II (strengthening) </li></ul><ul><li>Training and Visit (T&V) late 70’s to 80’s/early 90’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>18 states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved funding and manpower intensity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research-extension-farmer linkages strengthened </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Centrally designed and implemented </li></ul><ul><li>Blind to agro-climatic diversity, mixed results </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing role of NGOs and input industries </li></ul>
  9. 9. Extension system-evolution and growth <ul><li>Phase III- Post T&V (early 90’s onwards)-decline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External support dried up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restrictions on recruitments, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>extension staff with additional responsibilities, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>group approach, para extension workers, increase contact points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vacancies in remote and interior areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion of KVKs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increasing private sector involvement </li></ul>
  10. 10. Extension system-evolution and growth <ul><li>Phase 4 (late 90’s to now) </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural Technology Management Agency (ATMA) –WB funding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to integrate functioning of line departments at the district level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmer driven / farmer accountable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmer Information and Advisory Centre, BTT, SAMETI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pilot testing 1998-2005 –ATMA set up at 28 Districts / 7 states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Since 2005, model expanded to 268 districts with government funding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agri-clinics and Agri-business scheme-since 2003 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extension services on payment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self employment venture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training and loans to set up enterprises 10503 trained, 3000 set up </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Media -print/television, mostly private initiatives, Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding private sector extension provision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agri-business, contract farming arrangement, private consultancy services, NGOs, producer co-operatives/farmer associations </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Current status-Public Sector <ul><li>Co-ordination continues to be a big problem </li></ul><ul><li>Diminishing operational support(>85% salaries), </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ left to themselves, most states are unable to effectively carry out extension activities, several of them were able to pay the salaries of extension functionaries” (DAC,2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>poor technical background, implementation of schemes (>60% time), isolated functioning, obsession with technology dissemination, groups dysfunctional and inactive, lack of flexibility at district level </li></ul><ul><li>Perennial vacancies in remote and distant areas </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Exclusion- disadvantaged areas and small farmers, </li></ul><ul><li>Dependence on other farmers & input dealers high (NSSO 59 th round); input dealer-all in one- money lender, scientist, counselor and buyer (NCF) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Public extension alone can’t meet the specific need of various regions and different classes of farmers and policy to promote private and community driven extension to complement, supplement, work in partnership and even substitute for public extension” (DAC, 2000) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Current status-Private sector <ul><li>Agri-business- ITC (e-chaupal), MSSL, TKS etc </li></ul><ul><ul><li>contract farming-costs factored in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>paid consultancy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Better service than services currently provided by public sector </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing willingness of farmers to pay for extension (48%) </li></ul><ul><li>Long term capacity development/farmer education?? </li></ul><ul><li>Private extension is not a substitute for a strong public sector extension </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing realization that producers need an integrated set of support to address the complexities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extension-Plus, CREDIT-PLUS, Plus, Market-Plus </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Case 1 Extension-Plus <ul><li>VFPCK (Vegetable and Fruit Promotion Council, Kerala) </li></ul><ul><li>Evolved from EU funded KHDP(1992) </li></ul><ul><li>2001, section 25 company (50% shares-SHGs) </li></ul><ul><li>SHG-organizing unit (20-25 farmers) </li></ul><ul><li>Technology search, extension, credit, market development (Farmer marketing centres) </li></ul><ul><li>5351 SHGs, 93,609 farmers, 202 FMC, Rs.50 crore transaction (2005-06) </li></ul><ul><li>New initiatives-vegetable and fruit super markets, export to Gulf countries </li></ul>
  15. 15. Case 2- Credit-Plus <ul><li>BASIX (1996) promotion of sustainable livelihoods </li></ul><ul><li>Credit coupled with technical assistance and support services </li></ul><ul><li>2002- “Livelihood Triad” Financial services, Ag/BDS, Institutional Development </li></ul><ul><li>Ag/BDS- productivity enhancement, risk mitigation, local value addition, alternate market linkages </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster based, sub-sector, credit-plus approach </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities in the value chain </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborates with various agencies in the value chain-loans, technical and market assistance, institutional development </li></ul>
  16. 16. Case 3- Market-Plus: <ul><li>IDEI (International Development Enterprise, India)- “creating a sustainable market” </li></ul><ul><li>Project in Orissa-”linking tribal producers to high value markets through value addition”(2002-2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Value addition is a potential option, but would require developing strong linkages at various levels (markets, intermediaries, users, technology suppliers, researchers, grass-root facilitating organisations) </li></ul><ul><li>Coalition project-IDEI, OUAT and CCD(NGO) </li></ul><ul><li>Technology adaptation to meet local context (SHGs) </li></ul><ul><li>More partners as the project progressed </li></ul><ul><li>Pineapple juice-OMFED-6 tonnes- increase in prices-more employment-5 SHGs (25 womenX10 days) </li></ul><ul><li>Processing plant- proposal yet to get funding </li></ul><ul><li>New products-experimented and tested </li></ul>
  17. 17. Lessons <ul><li>Broader support to the rural poor (+) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge on technology is only one component </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>technological + non-technological </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Partnership-Key organizing principle </li></ul><ul><li>Learning-experimentation and learning from failure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VFPCK-farmer markets, credit package for lease land farmers, exports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ag/BDS-evolved through experimentation, Livelihood Triad based on first 5 years work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IDEI-new ways of addressing issues of hygine, developing and testing new products, new partners </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Institutions (habits and practices) matter </li></ul>
  18. 18. Implications for extension reform <ul><li>New goals for extension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>developing the capacity of producers to deal with evolving challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New framework for planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-eg: “innovation systems” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Partnership - learn the skills by doing </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional learning and change </li></ul><ul><li>Technical and Institutional innovations </li></ul><ul><li>Funding and manpower </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public goods, separate funding and delivery </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Agricultural Innovation System-actors Demand Domain Consumers, Processing companies, Commodity markets, policy bodies Research Domain Pvt R&D Intermediary Domain NGOs, Extension Services (Min/Dept of Ag) Producer associations Trader associations Consultants Donors Entreprenurs Enterprise Domain Producers, Commission agents, Input agencies, Transporters, Processors NARS Research Council & Agrl. Uty’s Other public sector R&D Support Structures Financial institutions, Transport and marketing Infrastructure, Professional networks, Education System
  20. 20. Conlusions <ul><li>Broaden the mandate </li></ul><ul><li>Broaden the skills base </li></ul><ul><li>Reconfigure patterns of interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Learning based approach </li></ul><ul><li>Plus- Collaboration between extension, credit and market </li></ul>
  21. 21. Thanks www.innovationstudies.org www.crispindia.org

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