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Sviluppo di specifiche tecnologie
innovative nel campo della
esplorazione e produzione
Fabio Brambilla
Sr. Geoscientist
Ba...
TOPICS
•Reserves vs Resources
•The shale gas unconventional reservoir and its
exploitation
•Understand shale gas reservoir...
3
Reserves vs Resources
I D E N T I F I E D
U N D I S C O V E R E D
Economic
Sub
economic
Petrophy.
Well Eng.
Gas market
G...
4
Innovation increases Reserves
Economic
Sub
economic
I D E N T I F I E D
Petrophy.
Well Eng.
Gas market
U N D I S C O V E...
The Shale Gas Reservoir
• Unconventional natural gas reservoir composed of fine-grained
sedimentary rocks, dominated by sh...
The Shale Gas Reservoir
• Unconventional natural gas reservoir composed of fine-grained
sedimentary rocks, dominated by sh...
Developing Shale Gas
•Two Key Elements of economic shale gas development:
1. Horizontal Wells
2. Multi-Stage Fracturing Sh...
•Collect reservoir data
– Logging while drilling
(LWD)
– Wireline logging (WL)
– Coring
• necessary for
– Identify formati...
BHI Shale Gas Evaluation Suite – An Integrated
Petrophysical approach to characterize highly
complex shale gas reservoirs
...
Integrated Approach to Optimizing Shale Gas Recovery
• Model Simulation Data
– Image logs
– Acoustic and Geochemical logs
...
The mineralogy varies in shale gas reservoirs
BarnettHaynesvilleMontney MarcellusEagle Ford
Well design
Well Profile Woodford Shale-Anadarko Basin
450 m
3130 m
3765 m
Drill faster and better
Smoother, more efficient
a century of innovation
Drilling Optimization: Barnett Shale Example
Reducing costs & Reducing footprint
Before 6 wells drilled @ 32 ft/hr
After 8...
Other Production Drivers:
Geomechanics and Hydraulic Fracture Complexity
FracPoint™ Completion System
16
• One-trip system – 24 stages
• Rotational capabilities
• Increase reservoir productivity ...
Planning, observation and monitoring of
fracturing job
Fracture Migration & Microseismic Integration
sh,max
sh,maxsh,min
sh,min
Horizontal Wellbores: Fracture Geometries
Proppants
• Proper placement creates a
conductive pathway from the
reservoir to the wellbore
• Proppant is the only materi...
Innovative solutions to minimize or not use
water in frac jobs
•FOAMED AQUASTAR® SYSTEM (US6410489)
– Two surfactant syste...
Thank you
Grazie
21
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Fabio brambilla shale_gas_convegno_bocconi

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Shale gas : new technologies for exploration, development and production

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Fabio brambilla shale_gas_convegno_bocconi

  1. 1. Sviluppo di specifiche tecnologie innovative nel campo della esplorazione e produzione Fabio Brambilla Sr. Geoscientist Baker Hughes, Continental Europe
  2. 2. TOPICS •Reserves vs Resources •The shale gas unconventional reservoir and its exploitation •Understand shale gas reservoir – Collect data – Analyze data •Put shale gas reservoir in production – Well design – Drill the well – Completion 2
  3. 3. 3 Reserves vs Resources I D E N T I F I E D U N D I S C O V E R E D Economic Sub economic Petrophy. Well Eng. Gas market Geological Geophysical Knowledge
  4. 4. 4 Innovation increases Reserves Economic Sub economic I D E N T I F I E D Petrophy. Well Eng. Gas market U N D I S C O V E R E D
  5. 5. The Shale Gas Reservoir • Unconventional natural gas reservoir composed of fine-grained sedimentary rocks, dominated by shale containing clay and other minerals like quartz, calcite • No trap - gas sourced and remains in same rock • Total Organic Carbon (TOC) , Thermal Maturity, Mineralogy, and Natural Fractures are Key - Micro-Porosity & micro/nanoDarcy-Permeability, secondary permeability • 5
  6. 6. The Shale Gas Reservoir • Unconventional natural gas reservoir composed of fine-grained sedimentary rocks, dominated by shale containing clay and other minerals like quartz, calcite • No trap - gas sourced and remains in same rock • Total Organic Carbon (TOC) , Thermal Maturity, Mineralogy, and Natural Fractures are Key - Micro-Porosity & micro/nanoDarcy-Permeability, secondary permeability • Gas stored in three ways: 1. Free Gas a. In rock matrix microporosity b. In natural fractures 2. Sorbed Gas a. Adsorbed on organic and mineral surfaces w/in nat Fractures b. Absorbed on organic and mineral surfaces w/in matrix 3. Dissolved - In HC liquids present (bitumen) Total Gas (GIP) = Free + Sorbed + Dissolved 6
  7. 7. Developing Shale Gas •Two Key Elements of economic shale gas development: 1. Horizontal Wells 2. Multi-Stage Fracturing Shales must be fracture stimulated to produce commercially (These two keys maximize reservoir volume connected to the well) • All Shale Gas Reservoirs are not the same • Vertical wells to define play, collect reservoir data • Analyze data and design and plan development • Horizontal wells to develop – Laterals 3,000 - 6,000 ft (900 - 1800 m) – Well spacing avg. 80 acres (0.323 Km2) • Effectiveness of hydraulic fracturing determines: - Production rates - Drainage area - Recovery 7
  8. 8. •Collect reservoir data – Logging while drilling (LWD) – Wireline logging (WL) – Coring • necessary for – Identify formations to drill horizontal – Identify optimal fracture intervals – Identify potential barriers for fracture containment 8 BHI Shale Gas Reservoir Evaluation Suite
  9. 9. BHI Shale Gas Evaluation Suite – An Integrated Petrophysical approach to characterize highly complex shale gas reservoirs Geochemistry Mineralogy Total Organic Content Lithofacies classification Total Porosity Siliceous Brittleness Index FLeX / RockView Spectralog Mineralogy Structural Sedimentary analyses Stress regime STAR / EI / CBIL/StarTrak/ Image logs Porosity Permeability Fluid typing Total Organic Content Resistivity / Density / Neutron Fracture characterization Illustration: Marcellus shale outcrop - Pennsylvania Core analyses PowerCOR MaxCOR Rotary core XMAC-F1 Acoustic FracExplorer Microseismic MReX NMR Dynamic & Static Geomechanical Properties Pressure Gradient Seismic studies Basic data Monitor fracturing
  10. 10. Integrated Approach to Optimizing Shale Gas Recovery • Model Simulation Data – Image logs – Acoustic and Geochemical logs – Seismic data – Advanced Microseismic data – Production Data •Stimulation design and production prediction – 3D Geomechanics – Geochemistry – Seismology – Natural Fractures 3D Geomechanics Stimulating Natural Fractures Microseismic Stimulation Program Image Data RockView
  11. 11. The mineralogy varies in shale gas reservoirs BarnettHaynesvilleMontney MarcellusEagle Ford
  12. 12. Well design Well Profile Woodford Shale-Anadarko Basin 450 m 3130 m 3765 m
  13. 13. Drill faster and better Smoother, more efficient a century of innovation
  14. 14. Drilling Optimization: Barnett Shale Example Reducing costs & Reducing footprint Before 6 wells drilled @ 32 ft/hr After 8 wells drilled @ 57 ft/hr 80% increase in average ROP, spud to TD 14 OPTIMIZATION • Modified PDC Bits • Model Re-design BHA - torque, drag, hydraulics • Optimized Parameters -WOB, Rotation • Critical Speed Analysis to Reduce Vibration • Result: increase ROP 5+ days saved 1 week
  15. 15. Other Production Drivers: Geomechanics and Hydraulic Fracture Complexity
  16. 16. FracPoint™ Completion System 16 • One-trip system – 24 stages • Rotational capabilities • Increase reservoir productivity fracture control • Versatile system – Primary and re-fracturing applications – Open or cased hole and vertical or horizontal – Modular components – customizable system • Increased reservoir contact • Reduced CAPEX • Minimizes surface constraints • Minimizes footprint FracHOOK™ Multilateral System
  17. 17. Planning, observation and monitoring of fracturing job
  18. 18. Fracture Migration & Microseismic Integration sh,max sh,maxsh,min sh,min Horizontal Wellbores: Fracture Geometries
  19. 19. Proppants • Proper placement creates a conductive pathway from the reservoir to the wellbore • Proppant is the only material intended to remain in the reservoir after a hydraulic fracturing treatment completion and cleanup
  20. 20. Innovative solutions to minimize or not use water in frac jobs •FOAMED AQUASTAR® SYSTEM (US6410489) – Two surfactant system •VAPORFRAC® SYSTEM •POLY CO2 FRAC SYSTEM – 25 % gelled fluid 40% Methanol •Aqueous Methanol Based Systems •Hydrocarbon Based Systems – SUPER RHEOGEL® FRAC SYSTEM - Gelled Oil •Non-Aqueous Methanol Based Systems – METHOFRAC® SYSTEMS •CO2 Based Systems, Liquid CO2 / N2 Super CO2 Foam
  21. 21. Thank you Grazie 21

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