Vocational training in France An Answer to your questions Centre INFFO (non-profit society under the aegis of the Ministry of Economy, Finance and Employment) is the french national centre for the development of information on continuing vocational training. Its role is to provide information, documentation and studies in this field. Its targets are continuing training professionals who n France, people have access to learning throughout I train, inform, advise and guide the end users. Centre INFFO has a privileged relationship with the State, their lives as part of the on-going education system. In with employers and trade union organisations and with 2003, one worker out of three took advantage of a trai- main training professionals. ning offer. On-going education enables individuals to follow a course either in the form of initial schooling, or a university curriculum for school pupils and students, or as vocationalCentre INFFO groups together specialists in law, documentation, training for any person already in the work force, whateverdata bases, training market and innovative practices, journalismand professionals of the publishing. their age. The efforts made in the area of lifelong vocational training and apprenticeships represented 1.46% of theIt: French gross domestic product in 20041.• co-ordinates information and documentation on continuingvocational education and training, The vocational training sector in France consists of two• edits and publishes periodicals, information documents, areas, each of which is relatively independent of the other:technical files and other information tools, • initial vocational training, which concerns young people in• contributes to Government information services, awareness full-time education and apprenticeships;operations and campaigns, • lifelong vocational training which concerns young people• provides information on the initiatives and operations of who have left or completed their initial education and adultsinternational, national and regional institutions, already in the workplace.• organises study and information days, France is undergoing an extension of schooling at all ages.• realises inquiries and studies for bodies or for companies. The vocational training sector is also being given greater credence and the work-based learning system is becoming increasingly common, either as part of the school curriculum or within the framework of a contract of employment. Over the last few years, the co-operation between school and business has increased noticeably and closer bridges have been established. The training/learning sector is enjoying major development, which is also part of EU policy. Besides, the State attributed to Regions, a whole competence of initial and continuing vocational training. 1 Source : Budget Plan 2007. Centre pour le développement This brochure summarises the specific de l’information sur la formation characteristics of initial and lifelong vocational permanente training, the means of accessing additional 4, avenue du Stade-de-France, information and the main networks of93218 Saint-Denis-La Plaine cedex education, technical teaching and vocational ¥ 33 1 55 93 91 91 www.centre-inffo.fr training operators in France.
Initial training to provide a place in the work force Since 2003, all the professionnal diplomas (level II et IV) are orga- I n France, education is organised on a national basis. It is free and, in the main, non religious. Private education accounts for one pupil in five. In 2005-2006, 87% of young people between the nized in units, you could obtain in a separate way. Agriculture education ages of 2 and 22 were attending an educational establishment1. These courses are overseen by the Ministry of Agriculture. They Initial learning provide varying levels of vocational education ranging from Level Education is compulsary between the ages of 6 and 16. It provides V to Level I. young people with teaching in general and professional subjects. Professionalism for higher education The educational system, which is headed by the Ministry of In 2005-2006, 37.5% of students registered in courses with a Education, consists of 3 levels divided into “cycles” (cf. table). In technical/ vocational bias3. Higher education offers general cour- 2004, the cost of education within France amounted to 116.3 ses and vocational training courses from technician level (2 years billion euros, or 7.1% of the gross domestic product2. after school) to engineer (5 years after school). Such courses are Three educational choices open to school leavers holding a school leaving certificate and to Threeeducational choices are available to pupils i.e. general holders of the DAEU (university entrance diploma). education, vocational courses and technological curricula. The last All the curricula now include diploma accreditation procedures two result in diplomas ranging from the CAP (Certificate of enabling adults to enter the university system and students to Professional Aptitude, Level V) to an engineering degree (Level I) be granted examination exemptions. The “grandes écoles”, France’s and include the BTS (higher-grade technician’s diploma, 2 years’ leading engineering colleges which have a reputation for excellen- study after leaving school). They can be obtained by following a ce, are controlled by various ministries e.g. Education, Defence, school curriculum, taking an apprenticeship, studying on an work- Industry, Transport, Agriculture and Fisheries. based learning system or obtaining an recognition of skills. Diplomas are designed and redefined by the relevant public authorities in co-operation with trade unions and employers asso- 1. Source: Ministry of Education. Répères et Références Statistiques 2006. ciations through Consultative Professional Commissions (know as 2. id. "CPC" for "Commissions Professionnelles Consultatives"). 3. id. The education Certifications via Main general curricula system in France apprenticeshipC.A.P. (Certificat Doctorate Higher educationd’aptitude aged 18 and overprofessionnel) :Professional M2 Engineering Masterskills certificate M1 colleges/ Engineering diploma Apprentices’ Training CentreB.E.P. (Brevet Universities L3d’enseignementprofessionnel) : L2 Licence BTS-DUTProfessional studies BTS-DUTCertificate L1B.T.S (Brevet High school High school High school High schoolde technicien diploma technological vocational diploma vocational diploma aged 15 to 18supérieur) : Higher diploma 11th Year 11th Year Professional certificateTechnicians Senior high technological course adaptation coursecertificate CAP - BEP school undergraduate CAP-BEPD.U.T. (Diplômeuniversitaire Lower gradetechnique) : Technical General course Technological course Vocational course vocational certificateuniversity degree Lower grade school certificate aged 11 to 15 9th Year Junior 8th Year high school 7th Year 6th Year General course aged 3 to 11 and primary pre-primary Kindergarten graduate Elementary school and primary Technological course schools Pre-elementary school Vocational course
... and lifelong vocational learningT This concerns people already in the work force (staff in both the private and the public sectors, non-salaried wor-kers) and about to enter the work force (job-seekers). Accreditation of life experience n University entrance: the accreditation of life experienceLifelong vocational training aims to: (system known as "validation des acquis de l’expérience" or• make it easier to adapt to changes in working techniques and "VAE" in France) allows applicants who do not have the necessary diplo-conditions; ma or qualifications but who have a foreign diploma, professional expe-• maintain or improve their vocational qualification; rience or informally acquired knowledge to gain entry to university• assist in their social or professional promotion. courses.Learning possibilities depend on the status of the beneficiary. n Obtaining certification: Anyone who can provide proof of having exer- cised a professional or voluntary activity relevant to the final aim of theCentral and regional governments are responsible for the imple- desired diploma or qualification can have the knowledge and compe-mentation of lifelong vocational training. Social partners play a tencies acquired in the course of that activity accredited in order tovital role particularly in the choice of learning policies for staff obtain all or part of the desired certification, i.e. to be exempted from allin the private sector and the management of funding provided or some of the relevant examinations.by companies.Vocational training providers may be private, public or part of theChambers of Commerce & Industry, Trades or Agriculture (cf. p4). • Training PlanMore than 12.8001 have this as their main sector of activity . This includes all the training activities for which the employer is respon- sible. The scheme is submitted to the works committee for discussion. TheIn 2004, France spent 24 billion euros on lifelong vocational trai- employer have two possibilities to provide training courses to hisning2. This funding comes mainly from central government employees. In one hand the member of staff undergoing training is consi-(39.6%), companies (39.6%) and regional governments (11.25%). dered to be undertaking professional work and is paid by the company. InThe remaining 9.55% result from the other public actors and the other hand, the employee attends training courses outside workingfrom households. hours at the employers request or with an only subsidy. An obligation for companies to • Individual training Leave This enables any salaried member of staff to follow his/her own participate in the funding of choice of training programme during working hours. Such a program- vocational training for their own staff me is different to any included in the training plan. On average, suchThis obligation is incumbent upon employers, in both the private training leave lasts for one year. During this period, the employee isand public sectors. Since 2005, it is equal to 1.6% of the wages paid (between 80% and 100% of his basic salary). He is also entitledbill for private companies with 20 employees or more, to 1.05% to request that his job be kept open for him in the company. Stafffor privates companies with 10 to 19 employees and to 0.55% of covered by a fixed-duration contract of employment can also takethe wages bill for private companies employing fewer than 10 individual training leave.employees3. • Individual training Right benefitWith the exception of the training plan for companies employing Under the Individual Training Right benefit (DIF), every employee acqui-a minimum of 10 employees, these contributions are managed res a training-time credit of 20 hours a year within the limits of 6 years,jointly and in equal proportions (employers/workers) by collecting which allows all employees to pursue a vocational training. Normally, thebodies operating at national or regional level per professional employee attends training courses outside working hours except when asector, or operating at an inter-professional level. sectors agreement of the social partners foresees the possibility of being considered to be undertaking on the professional work. Employee training • Personal and vocational skills analysisEmployees have access to training courses either at the This enables staff members to analyse their personal and professionalrequest of their employers within the framework of a training skills in order to define a vocational project or establish a plan for voca-scheme or at their own request within the leave of absence tional training. It can be carried out as part of the training plan or duringsystem, the longest period of absence being the individual leave of absence.training leave. Except the individual training Right, similar arrangements exist for public sector workers.Financial contribution of employers(in % of the firm’s gross annual wage bill) Training for self -employed workers Self-employed or non-salaried workers (farmers, craftsmen, shopkeepers, professional people) can also take advantage of training programmes. 0.50 They are required to participate in the funding of their training through 0.15 0.20 0.15 the payment of a contribution to a State-registered collecting body. 0.40 0.90 0.90 companies companies companies with with less than with 10 to a minimum 10 employees 19 employees of 20 employees Professionalisation and individual training rights 1. Source: 2007 Budget Plan Individual training leave 2. Source: Id. 3. Such funding (or participation) consists of various contributions Training plans (cf. diagram).
Pratical Guide Public services s Ministère de l’Agriculture et de la Pêche 78, rue de Varenne - 75349 Paris SP ¥ 33 1 49 55 49 55 http://www.agriculture.gouv.fr s Ministère de l’Économie, des Finances et de l’Emploi 139, rue de Bercy - 75572 Paris cedex 12 Preparing a vocational stay ¥ 33 1 40 04 04 04 http://www.minefi.gouv.fr in France s Délégation générale à l’emploi et à la formation professionnelle (DGEFP) Training courses: the main networks in France 7, square Max-Hymans - 75741 Paris cedex 15 ¥ 33 1 43 19 38 38 • The Association des chambres françaises de commerce et d’industrie http://www.travail.gouv.fr (ACFCI) provides information about all the colleges and schools managed by the networks of Chambers of Commerce and Industry. s Ministère de l’Éducation nationale http://www.acfci.cci.fr Direction de l’Enseignement scolaire • The Association nationale pour la formation professionnelle des adul- 110, rue de Grenelle - 75007 Paris tes (Afpa) organises vocational diploma courses (400 diplomas). ¥ 33 1 49 55 10 10 http://www.afpa.fr http://www.education.gouv.fr • The Assemblée permanente des chambres des métiers (Apcm) provides information on courses in trades and crafts subjects. s Ministère de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche http://www.apcm.com 1, rue Descartes - 75231 Paris cedex 05 ¥ 33 1 55 55 90 90 • The Conférence des grandes écoles supplies a list of leading colleges by http://www.recherche.gouv.fr specialist subject. It also indicates entrance requirements for foreign students. http://www.cge.asso.fr • The Conservatoire national des arts et métiers (Cnam), a public higher education establishment, offers more than 500 courses in theReception and consultancy industrial and tertiary sectors, each leading to a diploma or certificate. http://www.cnam.fr• Public service, portal site for French authorities. • Educagri, the website dedicated to public sector agriculturalhttp://www.service-public.fr teaching in France, provides information about schools and colleges,• National portal on guidance and initial and continuing training diplomas and sectors within the agricultural teaching system. It alsohttp://www.orientation-formation.fr indicates intake sizes for halls of residence and details international co-operation programmes.• EduFrance provides foreign students with a specific http://www.educagri.frcurriculum, in French, to prepare them for higher education.It also provides a wide range of vocational training courses • The Groupement d’établissements de l’Éducation nationale (Greta)for foreign students. prepares students for the 700 technological and vocational diplomashttp://www.edufrance.fr offered by the Ministry of Education. http://www.eduscol.education.fr Design and layout: Centre INFFO 01 55 93 91 29• Egide, a State-commissioned association, provides assistancefor foreign students, researchers, trainees and VIPs making • The network of lifelong learning departments within French universi-arrangements for travel, accommodation, sickness insurance and ties details the courses on offer in each region, by vocational sector.training before and during their stay. http://www.dep.u-picardie.fr/fcuhttp://www.egide.asso.fr • The Fédération de la formation professionnelle (FFP) groups together• The Ministry of Foreign Affairs’ site provides a large number of 300 private training providersrecommendations for people wishing to come and study in http://www.ffp.orgFrance. It provides information on the formalities that must becompleted prior to a stay in France.http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr• PLOTEUS is a Portal on Learning Opportunities throughout theEuropean Space. It aims to help everyone to find out information Information on training and employment:about studying in Europe. the main public agencieshttp://europa.eu.int/ploteus Agence nationale pour l’emploi (ANPE) : http://www.anpe.fr Centre d’information et de documentation pour la jeunesse (CIDJ) : http://www.cidj.fr Centres régionaux d’animation et de ressources d’information sur la formation (CARIF) : http://www.intercarif.org Centre européen pour le développement de la formation professionnelle (CEDEFOP) : http://www.cedefop.eu.int February 2008 Centre de développement de l’information sur la formation professionnelle (Centre INFFO) : http://www.centre-inffo.fr Office national d’information sur les enseignements et les professions (ONISEP) : http://www.onisep.fr Centre pour le développement de l’information sur la formation permanente - 4 avenue du Stade-de-France, 93218 Saint-Denis-La Plaine cedex