Massive Open Online Courses(MOOCs): EntrepreneurialInstruction or the Death ofTraditional Education                 Dr. Br...
MOOCs: Outline   Your Experiences as Learners   The Year of the MOOC   MOOCs: Acronyms Everywhere   MOOCs Defined: A C...
On Your Experiences as Learners    Name a course in college that     influenced your thinking in important     ways?    ...
The Year of the MOOC*   “... one of the hottest subjects in    education has been MOOCs, otherwise    known as Massively ...
MOOCs: Acronyms Everywhere      M for Massive: Define       massive? How many students?       Duration? Retention?      ...
MOOCs Defined: A Crib Sheet      Features of a       MOOC: Wiki or       blog for course       materials, open       enro...
MOOCs: The Beginning      MOOC coined in 2008 by       Dave Cormier (U of PEI) in       response to online course       d...
MOOCs: The Media Attention                                                         Stanford U launches set of free       ...
MOOCs: The Money                                                           MIT OpenCourseWare                            ...
Fischer Black: On Learning    “Why are we talking about     school so much? What you     learn on the job is nine to 11  ...
Ben Nelson: On Higher Education    Is this a good industry within which to start a     new company?    Here are the indu...
Ben Nelson: On Higher Education   Another 10 percent approximately is serviced by people    outside of that industry and ...
Richard Lanham: 10 Assumptions thatOrganize Higher Education         Assumption 1—The ideal education is face-to-face, on...
Richard Lanham: 10 Assumptions thatOrganize Higher Education         Assumption 6—University faculties are animated by a ...
Students as Consumers: Appeal         21M teenagers between 12-17 use the Internet and 78          percent primarily at s...
Students as Consumers: Problem        The learners-as-consumers model of educational         interaction is problematic b...
Students as Consumers: Problem        The learners-as-consumers model of educational         interaction is problematic b...
Student Consumers and Inflation      The learners-as-consumers model has inflated grades,       producing a generation of...
Higher Education on the Edge      Our problem situations are unstable,       demand flexibility and a creative ability to...
New Work and Economic Realities   Work is characterized by downsizing,    automation, flattening of work    hierarchies, ...
Higher Education and Global EconomicCollapse   Expansion of American universities in 1940s connected    to enormous expan...
DigitalTeaching andLearningPotentials   Current strategies for    integrating MOOC learning    into existing educational ...
Questions?    “… the current rate of state budget cutting     does not appear to be sustainable for the     country as a ...
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Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs): Entrepreneurial Instruction or the Death of Traditional Education

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2012 has been described at "The Year of the MOOC." This presentation describes where MOOCs came from and why they have drawn hundreds of media stories and commentaries and controversies and, more importantly, millions of investor dollars and claims that MOOCs represent "the future of education." Larger issues are at play—beyond high enrollment numbers in online classes—issues related to technological promise and education, views of students as consumers and of teachers as service providers, the rising price of tuition and shrinking public support of education, all embedded in a culture of entitlement challenged by unprecedented economic austerity. MOOCs, therefore, are as interesting for what they teach us about where we are technologically as they are for what they tell us about the value of education in our democratic society.

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  • Good morning. The SpeedCon team was kind enough to invite me to present on something that's near-and-dear to my heart these days: MOOCs. I find MOOCs exciting because they give me an opportunity to talk about the possible DEATH of higher education in the United States, something that—as a Canadian—isn't nearly as horrifying to me as it should be to you.
  • So let me start out with a quick overview of my presentation. Like a great novel, I aimed to design this talk to follow a well-known trajectory, from drawing you in at the outset, through defining our mutual context, into shared problem spaces and mutual despair, up to a bit of optimism and a few open-ended questions. Theoretically we should all leave feeling better rather than worse about our current situation….
  • We begin, I hope, by engaging everyone.
  • Apparently higher educational institutions and corporate investers and start-ups are finally ready to meet these learning demands … for FREE!
  • MOOCs. Let's define them.
  • MOOCs: Let's describe them.
  • We're told that they're less than five years old.
  • And getting a lot of media attention.
  • And a lot of funding and attention from several high-profile investors.
  • They're responding to strong criticisms of the job that higher education is doing preparing students for their futures, and for work.
  • They're highlighting the antiquated business model that drives institutions of higher education. They're questioning the education-service that students-consumers receive from these institutions.
  • MOOCs are reminding all of us of the 10 problematic assumptions that organize higher education, even according to higher educational researchers.
  • And MOOCs are appealing to our digital desire for high-speed access to information, learning, knowledge, employability, success.
  • But, higher educational institutions may not be equipped to meet our demands.
  • They may not exist only for student populations, although they should, shouldn't they?
  • After all, this generation is made up of academically high achieving innovators, right? And why are we paying so much to continue this success? And why isn't this success translating into full-time, engaging employment?
  • We understand that higher educational institutions are dealing with 21st Century changes, but we expect them to hurry up!
  • And we understand that national-systemic work changes and economic realities have altered our future context irrevocably, but, still, why shouldn’t anyone be allowed access to a Harvard University education!
  • Global economic collapse … initiated by our own American financial industry. And how have the events of 2008 influenced higher education? A quick summary….
  • Whew, because I hate concluding on the "Global Economic Collapse" note, let me quickly turn to something a bit more optimistic-idealistic. I began teaching non-face-to-face classes in the 80s, although my first official online course was approved in 2002. I taught a course on integrating technology into training to 20 graduate students at NC State and the course went very well. Since that time, I've been collecting data, observing, and writing about the difference between face-to-face and online courses. It's a wonderful and rich area for inquiry. Some my idealistic goals for digital education include promoting the following….
  • But I'm not oblivious to the brick-and-mortar institution that supports my online activities. So let me conclude with the following quote. And a reiteration of the question raised by the title of my talk. Your patience and engagement is much appreciated!
  • Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs): Entrepreneurial Instruction or the Death of Traditional Education

    1. 1. Massive Open Online Courses(MOOCs): EntrepreneurialInstruction or the Death ofTraditional Education Dr. Brad Mehlenbacher Department of Leadership, Policy & Adult & Higher Education NC State University Raleigh, North Carolina brad_m@ncsu.edu SpeedCon 2012 November 17, 2012
    2. 2. MOOCs: Outline Your Experiences as Learners The Year of the MOOC MOOCs: Acronyms Everywhere MOOCs Defined: A Crib Sheet MOOCs: A Beginning MOOCs: The Media Attention MOOCs: The Money Fischer Black, Ben Nelson, & Richard Lanham: On Learning & Higher Education Students as Consumers: Appeal, Problem, Inflation New Work & Economic Realities Higher Education on the Edge Higher Education & Global Economic Collapse Digital Teaching & Learning Potentials.* Downloaded from:*To download this presentation, see http://www.slideshare.net/bradmehlenbacher/
    3. 3. On Your Experiences as Learners Name a course in college that influenced your thinking in important ways? Name a task or project that influenced your learning? Name an instructor who made a difference in your life? Name a job that was particularly instructional or that influenced your direction in life? Name a group project you worked on that was particularly positive? Name a place or time that seems instrumental to your definition of self as a learner? Adopted from:Mehlenbacher, B. (2010). Instruction and Technology: Designs for Everyday Learning. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    4. 4. The Year of the MOOC* “... one of the hottest subjects in education has been MOOCs, otherwise known as Massively Open Online Courses…. MOOCs have been pegged by some as representing the future of the educational system†, democratizing education, bringing quality learning content to people of any age, in any  “What happened to the corner of the world for a small fee— newspaper and magazine if not for free.” business is about to happen Adopted from: to higher education….”Brooks, D. (2012). The campus tsunami. The New York Times, The Opinion Pages, May 3. Available online:http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/04/opinion/brooks-the-campus-tsunami.htmlEmpson, R. (2012). 2U one-ups MOOCs, Coursera, now offers online undergrad courses from top schools for credit.Techcrunch.com, November 15. Available online:http://techcrunch.com/2012/11/15/2u-one-ups-moocs-coursera-now-offers-online-undergrad-courses-from-top-schools-for-credit/† Leckart, S. (2012). The Stanford education experiment could change higher learning forever. Wired Science, March 20.Available online: http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2012/03/ff_aiclass/*Pappano, L. (2012). The year of the MOOC. The New York Times, Education Life, November 2. Available online:http://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/04/education/edlife/massive-open-online-courses-are-multiplying-at-a-rapid-pace.html?pagewanted=all&
    5. 5. MOOCs: Acronyms Everywhere  M for Massive: Define massive? How many students? Duration? Retention?  O for Open: Open enrollment? Openly licensed content? Open source platform? Open-ended classes? Is anything free?*  O for Online: Can there be offline versions? Study groups?  Course: Or connection, connectivism, community, credit, certificate? Adopted from:Masters, K. (2011). A brief guide to understanding MOOCs. The Internet Journal of Medical Education, 1 (2). Availableonline:http://www.ispub.com/journal/the-internet-journal-of-medical-education/volume-1-number-2/a-brief-guide-to-understanding-moocs.htmlWatters, A. (2012). The language of MOOCs. Hackeducation.com, June 7. Available online:http://www.hackeducation.com/2012/06/07/the-language-of-moocs/*Wiley, D., & Green, C. (2012). Chapter 6: Why openness in education? In Diana G. Oblinger (ed.), Game Changers:Education and Information Technologies (pp. 81-89). Louisville, CO: EDUCAUSE. Available online:http://www.educause.edu/library/resources/chapter-6-why-openness-education
    6. 6. MOOCs Defined: A Crib Sheet  Features of a MOOC: Wiki or blog for course materials, open enrollment, readings or audio/video recordings, networking between students, activities, sharing knowledge, student-driven assignments, participation, content production, auto-grading and/or peer review and assessment. Adopted from:Shaffer, J. (2011). MOOC crib sheet. Workshop at ISTE 2011. Available online: http://ukwebfocus.wordpress.com/2012/04/04/
    7. 7. MOOCs: The Beginning  MOOC coined in 2008 by Dave Cormier (U of PEI) in response to online course designed by George Siemens (Athabasca U) and Stephen Downes (NRC Canada, mooc.ca)  First MOOC: 25 tuition-paying students at U of Manitoba and 2,300 general students who took Connectivism and Connective Knowledge class for free  RSS feeds, Moodle discussions, blogs, 2nd Life, synchronous online meetings. Adopted from:Connectivism 2008. (2008). Extended Education and Learning Technologies Centre, University of Manitoba.. Available online:http://ltc.umanitoba.ca/wiki/Connectivism_2008#Week_9:_What_becomes_of_the_teacher.3F_New_roles_for_educators_.28November_3Massive open online course. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Available online:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Massive_open_online_course#History
    8. 8. MOOCs: The Media Attention  Stanford U launches set of free online courses  Sebastian Thrun’s Stanford U AI MOOC attracts over 160K users (25K complete the course) from over 190 countries  Thrun founds Udacity, a for- profit start-up based on the course  Daphne Koller and Andrew Ng at Stanford spin off Coursera Adopted from: (16M venture funding).Coursera. (n.d.). MOOC start-up. Available online: https://www.coursera.org/Lewin, T. (2012). Beyond the College Degree, Online Educational Badges. The New York Times, March 4. Available online:http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/05/education/beyond-the-college-degree-online-educational-badges.htmlLewin, T. (2012). Instruction for Masses Knocks Down Campus Walls. The New York Times, March 4. Available online:http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/05/education/moocs-large-courses-open-to-all-topple-campus-walls.html?pagewanted=allSimon, S. (2012). Startup aims to rival Ivy League online: Elite Internet university to see top students from around the globe.Edmonton Journal, April 6. Available online:http://www.edmontonjournal.com/business/Startup+aims+rival+League+online/6420373/story.htmlThrun, S., & Norvig, P. (n.d.). Introduction to Artificial Intelligence. Available online: https://www.ai-class.com/Weissmann, J. (2012). Can This “Online Ivy” University Change the Face of Higher Education? The Atlantic, April 5. Availableonline:http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2012/04/can-this-online-ivy-university-change-the-face-of-higher-education/255471/
    9. 9. MOOCs: The Money  MIT OpenCourseWare announced in 2002 with over 2K courses online, funded by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, and MIT (edX has $60M MIT and Harvard funding)  Salman Khan starts the Khan Academy in 2009, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Google  Ben Nelson secures $25M in venture capital from Benchmark Capital in 2011 to start an online university, Minerva Project. Adopted from:Khan Academy. (n.d.). The team. Available online: http://www.khanacademy.org/about/the-teamKolowich, S. (2012). How will MOOCs make money? Inside Higher Ed, June 11. Available online:http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2012/06/11/experts-speculate-possible-business-models-mooc-providersMIT OpenCourseWare. (n.d.). Unlocking knowledge, empowering minds. Available online: http://ocw.mit.edu/index.htmWeissmann, J. (2012). Can This “Online Ivy” University Change the Face of Higher Education? The Atlantic, April 5. Availableonline:http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2012/04/can-this-online-ivy-university-change-the-face-of-higher-education/255471/
    10. 10. Fischer Black: On Learning “Why are we talking about school so much? What you learn on the job is nine to 11 times what you learn at school. I don’t know the exact number, but that seems a reasonable estimate.” Adopted from:Fischer Black, a Goldman Sachs (GS) partner, legendary quant, and co-creator of the famed Black-Scholes option pricingmodel, Quoted inFarrell, C. (2012). Our (work) education crisis: Send in the MOOCs. Bloomberg Businessweek, September 18. Available online:http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2012-09-17/our-work-education-crisis-send-in-the-moocsMarks, J. (2012). This is the real revolution of MOOCs. David Murphy’s Occasional Blog, October 22. Available online:http://opob.edublogs.org/2012/10/22/this-is-the-real-revolution-of-moocs/
    11. 11. Ben Nelson: On Higher Education Is this a good industry within which to start a new company? Here are the industry characteristics. Here is a multi-billion dollar industry providing a service that’s doing gross margins of about 80 percent or so. There are a couple dozen competitors in this industry, the most recent entrant of which will turn a hundred years old next year. The industry provides a service that has grown in price three times the rate of inflation in 30 years. So the service has become substantially more expensive. And for the privilege of buying that service, this industry serves approximately 10 percent of market demand… Adopted from:Nelson, B. (2011). Taking on the Ivy League. TEDx SF: Independently organized TED event, December 5. Available online:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WEv8g80lcjo
    12. 12. Ben Nelson: On Higher Education Another 10 percent approximately is serviced by people outside of that industry and substitute goods and about 80 percent just don’t get that service, they just can’t buy it, even though they have the means and the ability to take advantage of the service, they just can’t buy it. Now the last characteristic of this industry is that the service that it is delivered by service professionals who not only have no training to deliver the service but, in the course of their evaluation, their promotion, their compensation, etc., not only are not monitored in how they deliver the service, they’re not trained in how to deliver the service, but there’s absolutely little to no, and mostly no, penalty or reward for providing this service well…. Adopted from:Griffith, E. (2012). Ben Nelson is Building a Virtual Harvard. It’s Ambitious—Just Don’t Call it Disruptive. Pandodaily, April3. Available online:http://pandodaily.com/2012/04/03/the-minerva-project-lands-25-million-for-elite-virtual-university-ambitious-yes-just-dont-call-it-disruptiSumagaysay, L. (2012). GMSV Q&A with Ben Nelson, CEO of planned ‘elite’ online university. MercuryNews.com, April 4.Available online: http://www.mercurynews.com/news/ci_20324886/gmsv-q-ben-nelson-ceo-planned-elite-online?source=rss
    13. 13. Richard Lanham: 10 Assumptions thatOrganize Higher Education  Assumption 1—The ideal education is face-to-face, one- on-one education  Assumption 2—Higher education, in its ideal form, proceeds in a setting sequestered in both time and space  Assumption 3—The education that every university offers should be generated in-house by resident faculty employed full-time for this purpose  Assumption 4—The ideal pattern of employment for a university faculty is one that combines a maximum of narrowness and inflexibility in job description with a maximum of job security: the tenure system  Assumption 5—The purpose of the university administration is to protect the faculty from the outside world Adopted from:Lanham, R. A. (2002). The audit of virtuality: Universities in the attention economy. In S. Brint (ed.), The Future of the City ofIntellect: The Changing American University (pp. 159-180). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    14. 14. Richard Lanham: 10 Assumptions thatOrganize Higher Education  Assumption 6—University faculties are animated by a purity of motive different from, and superior to, the world of ordinary human work  Assumption 7—Universities are unique institutions. As such, they cannot be meaningfully compared to any others  Assumption 8—Inefficiency is something to be proud of  Assumption 9—The new electronic field of expression does not change what we are doing but only how we are doing it  Assumption 10—The university lives in the same kind of economy it has always lived in (pp. 160-176). Adopted from:Lanham, R. A. (2002). The audit of virtuality: Universities in the attention economy. In S. Brint (ed.), The Future of the City ofIntellect: The Changing American University (pp. 159-180). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    15. 15. Students as Consumers: Appeal  21M teenagers between 12-17 use the Internet and 78 percent primarily at school (16M) (Hitlin & Rainie, 2005)  These students want  To complete their education while working full-time  A curriculum and faculty that are relevant to the workplace (vocationally oriented)  A time-efficient education  Their education to be cost-effective (and public support has decreased while costs have increased)  A high level of customer service (and class sizes have grown)  Convenience (Biggs, p. 2; De Alva, pp. 55-56). Adopted from:Biggs, J. (2003). Teaching for Quality Learning at University: What the Student Does. Buckingham, England: Society forResearch into Higher Education and Open University Press.De Alva, J. K. (1999/2000). Remaking the academy in the age of information. Issues in Science and Technology, 16 (2), 52-58.Hitlin, P., & Rainie, L. (2005). The Internet at School. Report of the PEW Internet and American Life Project. Available online:http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2005/The-Internet-at-School.aspx
    16. 16. Students as Consumers: Problem  The learners-as-consumers model of educational interaction is problematic because  If universities are able to maintain their altruistic goal of serving the public good, learners may not be satisfied with the workplace preparation offered by some institutions;  Although customers of financial institutions expect high returns on their investments in limited amounts of time, the business of financial institutions does not allow this promise to be made; so too are learners subject to the complexities of resources that are brought together to provide them with rigorous and useful courses and programs; Adopted from:Mehlenbacher, B. (2010). Instruction and Technology: Designs for Everyday Learning. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    17. 17. Students as Consumers: Problem  The learners-as-consumers model of educational interaction is problematic because  Universities serve many constituents, not simply learners, and are therefore going to be continually faced with decisions that require trade-offs between satisfying one customer base versus another; and  Convenience, which presumes agreement and a “good fit” and frictionless programs, is not the responsibility of higher learning institutions (i.e., many more applicants would like to attend MIT or Harvard than are admitted, which is, again, similar to the situation with financial institutions). Adopted from:Mehlenbacher, B. (2010). Instruction and Technology: Designs for Everyday Learning. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    18. 18. Student Consumers and Inflation  The learners-as-consumers model has inflated grades, producing a generation of unquestioning achievers:  Students who receive awards for contributing and for competing throughout their K-12 educations;  “Two out of five students have a grade-point average of A- or better, almost six times as many as in 1969, and 60 percent of them nonetheless say their grades understate the true quality of their work” (Lewin, 2012, interview with Arthur Levine).  Universities have inflated tuition to account for reduced public support:  Since 2001, tuition fees at 4-year public colleges in the U.S. have risen an average of almost 6% annually. Adopted from:Leonard, A. (2012). Tuition is too damn high. Salon.com, May 11. Available online:http://www.salon.com/2012/05/11/tuition_is_too_damn_high/Lewin, T. (2012). Digital Natives and their customs. The New York Times, Education Life, November 2. Available online:http://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/04/education/edlife/arthur-levine-discusses-the-new-generation-of-college-students.html?smid=tw-share
    19. 19. Higher Education on the Edge  Our problem situations are unstable, demand flexibility and a creative ability to organize across similar but always different problems and demand that we understand, argue, and evaluate our work both conceptually and pragmatically (Schön, 1983).  Our understanding of knowledge and expertise have changed: … knowledge is contingent, framed by higher-order and changing structures, publicly distributed, and drawn from multiple, emergent sources (Resnick, Lesgold, & Hall, 2005). Adopted from:Resnick, L. B., Lesgold, A., and Hall, M. W. (2005). Technology and the new culture of learning: Tools for educationprofessionals. In P. Gårdenfors and P. Johansson (eds.), Cognition, Education, and Communication Technology (pp. 77–107).Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Schön, D. A. (1983). The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action. New York, NY: Basic.Sternberg, R. J. (2003). What is an “Expert Student?” Educational Researcher, 32 (8), 5-9.
    20. 20. New Work and Economic Realities Work is characterized by downsizing, automation, flattening of work hierarchies, increasing numbers of relationships between companies, continual reorganization, the breaking down of silos or stovepipes in organizations, and the increase in telecommunications. March 2012 unemployment rate of 16.4% for American youths under 25. Globalization: number of students from Lithuania who took Udacity’s 1st course exceeded student body of Stanford. Adopted from:Shierholz, H., Sabadish, N., & Wething, H. (2012). The class of 2012: Labor market for young graduates remains grim. Reportof Jobs Wages and Living Standards, May 3. Economic Policy Institute: Research and Ideas for Shared Prosperity. Availableonline: http://www.epi.org/publication/bp340-labor-market-young-graduates/Spinuzzi, C. (2007). Introduction to TCQ Special Issue: Technical communication in the age of distributed work. TechnicalCommunication Quarterly, 16 (3), 265-277.Wildavsky, B. (2012). Who won the great recession?: Higher Ed. Foreign Policy, 196, 60-61.
    21. 21. Higher Education and Global EconomicCollapse Expansion of American universities in 1940s connected to enormous expansion of world economy Reduction in monopoly of socioeconomically advantaged in 1970s Global economic stagnation results in reduced state investment and investment in external funding During 1980s and 1990s, universities increasingly privatized, the professoriate stabilizes, creation of adjunct (contingent) culture Today, universities under attack for serving student population poorly (in the light of scarcity) and under attack from anti-intellectual consumer culture of the U.S. Adopted from:Bousquet, M. (2008). How the University Works: Higher Education and the Low-Wage Nation. NY, NY: NYU Press.Edsall, T. B. (2012). The Age of Austerity: How Scarcity will Remake American Politics. NY, NY: Doubleday.Greer, J. M. (2011). The Wealth of Nature: Economics as if Survival Mattered. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers.Heinberg, R. (2011). The End of Growth: Adapting to Our New Economic Reality. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers.Wallerstein, I. (2012). Higher education under attack. Energy Bulletin, March 1. Available online:http://www.energybulletin.net/stories/2012-03-02/higher-education-under-attack
    22. 22. DigitalTeaching andLearningPotentials Current strategies for integrating MOOC learning into existing educational spaces Online education is always changing (non- stable), instructionally and professionally. Adopted from:Coppola, N. W., Hiltz, S. R., & Rotter, N. G. (2002) Becoming a virtual professor: Pedagogical roles and asynchronous learningnetworks, Journal of Management Information Systems, 18 (4) 169–189.Crotty, J. M. (2012). Distance learning has been around since 1892, you big MOOC. Forbes, Tech, November 11. Available online:http://www.forbes.com/sites/jamesmarshallcrotty/2012/11/14/distance-learning-has-been-around-since-1892-you-big-mooc/Jenkins, H., Purushotma, R., Clinton, K., Weigel, M., & Robinson, A. J. (2006). Confronting the challenges of participatory culture:Media education for the 21st century. An Occasional paper for digital media and learning. MacArthur Foundation. Available online:http://digitallearning.macfound.org/atf/cf/{7E45C7E0-A3E0-4B89-AC9C-E807E1B0AE4E}/JENKINS_WHITE_PAPER.PDF
    23. 23. Questions? “… the current rate of state budget cutting does not appear to be sustainable for the country as a whole” (Bowen and National Science Board, 2012). Entrepreneurial instruction or the death of traditional education? An argument for the value of education in a democratic country. Adopted from:Basken, P. (2012). NSF raises alarm over falling state support for researchuniversities. The Chronicle of Higher Education, Government, September 25.Available online: http://chronicle.com/article/NSF-Raises-Alarm-Over-Falling/134626/Caceras, Z. (2012). ‘A classroom of thousands’: Disrupting entrepreneurial educationwith Massive Open Online Courses. Radical Social Entrepreneurs, August 1.Available online: http://www.radicalsocialentreps.org/2012/08/a-classroom-of-thousands-disrupting-entrepreneurial-education-with-massive-open-online-courses/

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