Moving towards Modernity 20 th  Century World History B. Bergey, 2008
The Long View Ancient 700 BCE – 500 CE Modern 1500 CE - Present Middle Ages Medieval <ul><li>Ancient Greece </li></ul><ul>...
Modern Era defined by <ul><li>Rationality & Logic </li></ul><ul><li>Optimism & Progress </li></ul><ul><li>Individualism </...
Rationality & Logic <ul><li>Newton ,  Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy , 1684 </li></ul><ul><li>New mathemati...
Optimism & Progress <ul><li>Optimism about change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kant (1784) calls it the age of enlightenment </li...
Optimism & Progress <ul><ul><ul><li>Voltaire :  Humans, by nature, our good; the ills of society corrupt </li></ul></ul></ul>
Optimism & Progress <ul><ul><ul><li>Locke :  All humans have natural rights that no one can legitimately violate </li></ul...
Individualism <ul><ul><li>Classical Liberalism : social betterment though the liberation of individual potential. </li></u...
Individualism <ul><ul><li>The ideas of classical liberalism (social and economic individualism) and other enlightenment pr...
Industrialization <ul><li>Dramatically altered social patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid urbanization: Move from agriculture...
Industrialization
Industrialization <ul><ul><ul><li>Spurred colonization :  European imperial powers seeking raw materials and markets for f...
Industrialization <ul><ul><ul><li>Marxism—Alternative vision:  Urged workers to overthrow the present order and shape in t...
Industrialization <ul><ul><li>Industrialism produced “mass society” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mass consumption of mat...
“ Second Coming” William Butler Yeats (1921) <ul><li>Turning and turning in the widening gyre </li></ul><ul><li>The falcon...
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Moving Toward Modernity

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  • Moving Toward Modernity

    1. 1. Moving towards Modernity 20 th Century World History B. Bergey, 2008
    2. 2. The Long View Ancient 700 BCE – 500 CE Modern 1500 CE - Present Middle Ages Medieval <ul><li>Ancient Greece </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific Revolution (late 1600s-1700s) </li></ul>
    3. 3. Modern Era defined by <ul><li>Rationality & Logic </li></ul><ul><li>Optimism & Progress </li></ul><ul><li>Individualism </li></ul>
    4. 4. Rationality & Logic <ul><li>Newton , Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy , 1684 </li></ul><ul><li>New mathematical model of the universe, “portraying it as a materialistic world of mindless bodies coursing in regular motions according to inflexible laws of nature.” </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific method: Inductive empiricism </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded to form new disciplines: Social Sciences, whose focus it was to improve the society, politics and ethics. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Optimism & Progress <ul><li>Optimism about change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kant (1784) calls it the age of enlightenment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No more fear of change; change was progress; progress was good. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progress: belief that humans were advancing in a continuous process of improvement, that in a constantly improving world, the future would always be better </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looking to the future, not to the past </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Optimism & Progress <ul><ul><ul><li>Voltaire : Humans, by nature, our good; the ills of society corrupt </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Optimism & Progress <ul><ul><ul><li>Locke : All humans have natural rights that no one can legitimately violate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promoted and articulated the framework of democratic, just governments </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Individualism <ul><ul><li>Classical Liberalism : social betterment though the liberation of individual potential. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Believed: Individual is the basic unit of society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pressed for more personal freedom </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capitalism : Adam Smith </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideal: A society of autonomous citizens in which the pursuit of rational self-interest brought about the good for all. </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Individualism <ul><ul><li>The ideas of classical liberalism (social and economic individualism) and other enlightenment principles are spread throughout Europe after Napoleon. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Industrialization <ul><li>Dramatically altered social patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid urbanization: Move from agriculture for cities </li></ul><ul><li>Many joined industrial working class </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor working conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large supply of workers kept wages low </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Especially women and children </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fostered violence and crime </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for some </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Created a professional, affluent middle-class, called bourgeoisie </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greater social mobility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some safety nets (Start of public education & Social welfare programs) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Industrialization
    12. 12. Industrialization <ul><ul><ul><li>Spurred colonization : European imperial powers seeking raw materials and markets for finished goods </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Industrialization <ul><ul><ul><li>Marxism—Alternative vision: Urged workers to overthrow the present order and shape in their interests </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Industrialization <ul><ul><li>Industrialism produced “mass society” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mass consumption of materials, entertainment, news </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased material conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better health </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. “ Second Coming” William Butler Yeats (1921) <ul><li>Turning and turning in the widening gyre </li></ul><ul><li>The falcon cannot hear the falconer; </li></ul><ul><li>Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold; </li></ul><ul><li>Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world, </li></ul><ul><li>The blood-dimmed tide is loosed, and everywhere </li></ul><ul><li>The ceremony of innocence is drowned; </li></ul><ul><li>The best lack all conviction, while the worst </li></ul><ul><li>Are full of passionate intensity. </li></ul>

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