Modern Middle East 20 th  Century World History B. Bergey
Factors to consider <ul><li>Religion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jew? Christian? Muslim? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If Muslim? ...
Islam <ul><li>Practitioner called  Muslim </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic  is adjective (not used with people) </li></ul><ul><li...
Sunnis & Shi’a <ul><li>Some wanted Ali (cousin & brother-in-law) with blood tie to Muhammad </li></ul><ul><li>Shi’a means ...
Distribution of Sunni & Shi´a Muslims
Distribution of Religion in the Middle East
Distribution of Religion (detail)
Ethnicity in the Middle East For larger map  
Before the  20 th  Century <ul><li>Who’s controlled the Middle East (ME)? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arabs arrived with Isl...
Decline of the Ottoman Empire
Post WWI:  British & French Mandates
<ul><li>Oil </li></ul><ul><li>British take Palestine, Transjordan, & Iraq </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Along with:  </li></ul></u...
Middle East in 1930
Nationalism vs. Regionalism Will all Arabs unite or will they be divided in to smaller states that their different histori...
Pan-Arabism <ul><li>Pan-Arabism:  Movement based in the belief that all Arabs should be free of occupying powers and shoul...
Rewind to WWI
During WWI <ul><li>British court both Jews and Palestinian Arabs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To  Arabs :  Britain will help form...
Balfour Agreement
Zionism <ul><li>International nationalist movement to establish a state in Palestine </li></ul><ul><li>1200 BCE Jews have ...
 
 
Demographics Source:  American Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee, 2002 Palestinians Jews
In the 20s & 30s <ul><li>Increasing tension between  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palestinian Ara...
Holocaust  1933-1945 <ul><li>Est. 6,000,000 Jews killed </li></ul><ul><li>Genocide: Actions to systematically eliminate an...
After WWII <ul><li>Britain is bankrupt </li></ul><ul><li>Britain turns the question of Palestine over to the United Nation...
UN suggests division of Palestine into two independent states (1 Israeli, 1 Arab)
Population Breakdown of UN Partition Plan
“ War of Independence” “Nakba” (Catastrophe) <ul><li>Conflict intensifies after Partition is announced (Nov. 1947) </li></...
Civil War <ul><li>Arabs </li></ul><ul><li>+ reputation (mighty Arab warrior) </li></ul><ul><li>+ initial advantage (i.e. m...
Palestinians Flee <ul><li>100,000 Palestinian Arabs (mainly upper-class) leave early in conflict </li></ul><ul><li>150,000...
State of Israel <ul><li>May 14, 1948 Israel declares itself independent </li></ul><ul><li>US & Soviet Union immediately re...
Invasion <ul><li>Arab troops from Egypt, TransJordan, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq invade </li></ul><ul><li>Arabs are poorly organ...
Transjordan annexs West Bank Egypt controls Gaza strip
 
Palestinian Refugee Camps, 1948
Where do Palestinian Refugees Go?
Six Day War an‑Naksah   ( The Setback ) <ul><li>Israel preemptive attack </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to mounting pressure...
Independence
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Middle Eastern Culture & History

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Middle Eastern Culture & History

  1. 1. Modern Middle East 20 th Century World History B. Bergey
  2. 2. Factors to consider <ul><li>Religion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jew? Christian? Muslim? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If Muslim? Sunni or Shi’a </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arab? Persian? Turk? Kurd? </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Islam <ul><li>Practitioner called Muslim </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic is adjective (not used with people) </li></ul><ul><li>Shares roots with Judaism & Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>5 Pillars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his messenger&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prayer 5 times a day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fasting (Ramadan) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hajj, pilgrimage to Mecca </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Sunnis & Shi’a <ul><li>Some wanted Ali (cousin & brother-in-law) with blood tie to Muhammad </li></ul><ul><li>Shi’a means “party of Ali” </li></ul><ul><li>Minority in Islam (globally) </li></ul><ul><li>Believe Imams are infallable </li></ul><ul><li>Reject supplementary narratives </li></ul><ul><li>Perceive themselves as persecuted and martyrs </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social justice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dignity of individual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader selected from bloodline </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Majority wanted Abu Bakr--No blood tie </li></ul><ul><li>Sunni means “one who follows in the tradition of Muhammad </li></ul><ul><li>Most Muslims world wide are Sunni </li></ul><ul><li>Imams are fallible </li></ul><ul><li>Refer to supplementary teachings of early leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Community decides leader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conformity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social stability </li></ul></ul>After Muhammad’s death, the question of who to lead:
  5. 5. Distribution of Sunni & Shi´a Muslims
  6. 6. Distribution of Religion in the Middle East
  7. 7. Distribution of Religion (detail)
  8. 8. Ethnicity in the Middle East For larger map 
  9. 9. Before the 20 th Century <ul><li>Who’s controlled the Middle East (ME)? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arabs arrived with Islam in 7 th century </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tribal groups until… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rise of Ottoman Empire 1500s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ottoman Empire declines (18 th century) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Finally falls apart and is taken apart by European powers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Decline of the Ottoman Empire
  11. 11. Post WWI: British & French Mandates
  12. 12. <ul><li>Oil </li></ul><ul><li>British take Palestine, Transjordan, & Iraq </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Along with: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kuwait </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coast of Saudi Arabia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>France took: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Syria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lebanon </li></ul></ul></ul>Why are the British & French interested in the ME ?
  13. 13. Middle East in 1930
  14. 14. Nationalism vs. Regionalism Will all Arabs unite or will they be divided in to smaller states that their different histories and local cultures?
  15. 15. Pan-Arabism <ul><li>Pan-Arabism: Movement based in the belief that all Arabs should be free of occupying powers and should move towards a unified and autonomous Middle East. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Rewind to WWI
  17. 17. During WWI <ul><li>British court both Jews and Palestinian Arabs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To Arabs : Britain will help form a country if you find against the Turks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To Jews : Britain will help form a “national home” for a many possible reasons </li></ul></ul>T.E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia)
  18. 18. Balfour Agreement
  19. 19. Zionism <ul><li>International nationalist movement to establish a state in Palestine </li></ul><ul><li>1200 BCE Jews have a kingdom in present-day Israel </li></ul><ul><li>Founded in late 19 th century by Theodor Hertzl </li></ul><ul><li>Largely European/Russian movement of secular Jews </li></ul><ul><li>Response to Anti-Semitic actions/sentiment in Europe/Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged immigration to the “Promise Land” </li></ul>
  20. 22. Demographics Source: American Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee, 2002 Palestinians Jews
  21. 23. In the 20s & 30s <ul><li>Increasing tension between </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palestinian Arabs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arab revolts 1936-1939 </li></ul><ul><li>Britain quells Arab up-risings by force </li></ul>
  22. 24. Holocaust 1933-1945 <ul><li>Est. 6,000,000 Jews killed </li></ul><ul><li>Genocide: Actions to systematically eliminate an ethic group </li></ul><ul><li>International support for Zionist mov’t after war </li></ul>
  23. 25. After WWII <ul><li>Britain is bankrupt </li></ul><ul><li>Britain turns the question of Palestine over to the United Nations </li></ul><ul><li>US seeks to fill the vacuum before the USSR, becomes most important western power </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping oil available to the West becomes issue in the emerging Cold War </li></ul>
  24. 26. UN suggests division of Palestine into two independent states (1 Israeli, 1 Arab)
  25. 27. Population Breakdown of UN Partition Plan
  26. 28. “ War of Independence” “Nakba” (Catastrophe) <ul><li>Conflict intensifies after Partition is announced (Nov. 1947) </li></ul><ul><li>Arab states vow to prohibit the establishment of Israel </li></ul><ul><li>Increases as British leave </li></ul><ul><li>2 Phases: Civil War & Invasion </li></ul>
  27. 29. Civil War <ul><li>Arabs </li></ul><ul><li>+ reputation (mighty Arab warrior) </li></ul><ul><li>+ initial advantage (i.e. more troops) </li></ul><ul><li>Jews </li></ul><ul><li>Reputation of being easily controlled </li></ul><ul><li>Initial disadvantage (i.e. couldn’t import arms, ppl) </li></ul><ul><li>+ Israel was better organized (communication, taxes) </li></ul><ul><li>+ Benefited from British evacuation (less taxes) </li></ul><ul><li>+ “Fighting for their lives” </li></ul>
  28. 30. Palestinians Flee <ul><li>100,000 Palestinian Arabs (mainly upper-class) leave early in conflict </li></ul><ul><li>150,000 more fled by May 1948, either because of eviction or voluntarily </li></ul><ul><li>Believed would return after Arab invasion </li></ul>
  29. 31. State of Israel <ul><li>May 14, 1948 Israel declares itself independent </li></ul><ul><li>US & Soviet Union immediately recognize the new state </li></ul>
  30. 32. Invasion <ul><li>Arab troops from Egypt, TransJordan, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq invade </li></ul><ul><li>Arabs are poorly organized, trained, have weak supply routes. </li></ul><ul><li>Israel receives much needed arms from Czechoslovakia (despite a UN embargo) </li></ul>
  31. 33. Transjordan annexs West Bank Egypt controls Gaza strip
  32. 35. Palestinian Refugee Camps, 1948
  33. 36. Where do Palestinian Refugees Go?
  34. 37. Six Day War an‑Naksah ( The Setback ) <ul><li>Israel preemptive attack </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to mounting pressure from Egypt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suez Canal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Egyptian troops moved to Israeli southern border </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Israel occupies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>West Bank (from Jordan) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaza and Sinai (from Egypt) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Golan Heights (from Syria) </li></ul></ul>
  35. 38. Independence

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