Vintage Illinois


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Vintage Illinois

  1. 1. Vintage Illinois:History, development, and wines<br />
  2. 2. Eastern U.S. history<br />Wine production and early settlements<br />Production of goods for use, trade by England<br />Silk, oils, wine, tobacco<br />European grapes failed repeatedly<br />Native species<br />Poor yields, strange quality<br />mid-1800’s<br />Emergence of chance V. labrusca hybrids<br />‘Concord’, ‘Delaware’, ‘Catawba’<br />
  3. 3. Illinois history<br />Labrusca hybrids catalyzed the industry<br />Grape production common<br />Mostly fresh, jelly, juice<br />Commercial wineries?<br />
  4. 4. Oldest Illinois Winery<br />Baxter’s Vineyards, Nauvoo 1855<br />Icarians (French)<br />Concord, Niagara, Catawba<br />$0.25/gal.<br />500-600 acres<br />Many others around IL, but little documentation<br />
  5. 5. 1900 Census<br />
  6. 6. Post-prohibition<br />Industry still recovering<br />Farmers turned to other crops<br />Intense regulation of alcohol-related business<br />Vineyards take 3-5 years to develop fruit<br />Financial stress<br />Political stress<br />Change in consumer preferences<br />Pre- 3:1 dry to sweet<br />Post- 1:3 dry to sweet<br />
  7. 7. European hybrids<br />1900 – 1950<br />New grape varieties emerged<br />Seyval blanc, Villard noir, Villard blanc<br />Vidal blanc, Chancellor, Chambourcin<br />Marechal Foch, Leon Millot<br />Selected for phylloxera resistance and <br /> wine quality<br />Cold-tolerance added benefit to eastern U.S.<br />
  8. 8. European hybrids<br />Backbone of modern eastern U.S. industry<br />Not ‘Concord’-like<br />Moderately cold-tolerant<br />Disease tolerant<br />Productive<br />
  9. 9. 1990’s<br />Established cultivar trials around the state, including UIUC<br />Established grape and wine resources council<br />Enology and viticulture specialists<br />Emphasis on the promotion of new growers, winemakers<br />
  10. 10. Illinois terroir<br />Continental climate<br />Cold winters, hot summers<br />Major challenges<br />Disease pressure<br />Hot, humid summers<br />Rainfall<br />Minimum winter temp<br />Spring frost<br />Lack of elevated sites<br />Rich, fertile, deep soils<br />Vigorous vegetative growth<br />
  11. 11. Industry development<br />Year<br /># of Vines<br />Acres<br />1900<br />1986<br />1999<br />2005<br />3,008,000<br />23,000<br />215,160<br />660,000<br />5400<br />38<br />326<br />1100<br />
  12. 12. Illinois wine<br />77 Wineries<br />Wines<br />Fruit, mead<br />Labrusca<br />French-American hybrids<br />New hybrids<br />Cornell, UMN<br />Vinifera<br />Wide variety of styles<br />
  13. 13. New Cultivars<br />V. vinifera<br />2000+ yr. head start<br />Sources<br />Academic and private breeders<br />Very little data, <br /> recommendations available<br />
  14. 14. Consumer Acceptance<br />Development of new hybrid wine enthusiasts<br />Traditionalists<br />Want wines to taste like Chardonnay, Cabernet<br />Labrusca fans<br />Want wines to taste like grandpa’s<br />Agritourism<br />Attach experience to product<br />Market locally<br />
  15. 15. Illinois wine grape varieties<br />Labrusca grapes<br />Concord, Catawba, <br /> Niagara, Delaware<br />Grown throughout IL<br />Wine styles<br />Sweet, dessert<br />
  16. 16. Illinois wine grape varieties<br />Vinifera grapes<br />Chardonnay, <br />Cabernet franc<br />Viognier, Syrah<br />Southern Illinois<br />Minimal acreage, but on the rise<br />
  17. 17. Illinois wine grape varieties<br />Hybrids<br />Reds<br />Chambourcin, Norton/Cynthiana, Chancellor, Noiret, Corot Noir, Leon Millot, Marechal Foch, Marquette, Frontenac<br />Whites<br />Vignoles, Seyval blanc, Chardonel, Traminette, Vidal blanc, Valvin Muscat, Edelweiss, St. Pepin, La Crescent, Frontenac gris<br />
  18. 18. Chardonel<br />Hybrid of Chardonnay and Seyval blanc<br />Crisp acidity<br />Citrus aromas<br />Oaked or unoaked, dessert<br />Pairs similar to Chardonnay<br />
  19. 19. Seyval blanc<br />Wine style varies<br />Typical peach character<br />Can include tropical fruit and grassiness<br />Sauvignon blanc<br />Pairing depends on style<br />Seafood, salad<br />Mahi Mahi with Mango sauce<br />
  20. 20. Traminette<br />Gewurztraminer descendent<br />Intense floral aromas<br />Citrus notes<br />Best with spicy foods<br />Thai, Vietnamese<br /> Original cross made by Herb Barret at UIUC in 1965 <br />
  21. 21. Frontenac<br />Grown more in northern ½ of Illinois<br />Versatile<br />Red, rose, sparkling, dessert<br />Outstanding Port-style wines<br />Garnet color<br />Distinct cherry nose<br />Low tannin, crisp acidity<br />Chocolate desserts<br />
  22. 22. Cabernet Franc<br />True Vitisvinifera<br />Bordeaux, Loire<br />Grown in southern IL<br />Dry table wine<br />Moderate color<br />Dark fruit, black pepper<br />Great structure and tannin<br />Pairing: Beef, lamb, rich foods<br />
  23. 23. Chambourcin<br />The premier red wine grape of southern Illinois<br />Shawnee Hills AVA<br />Versatile<br />Dry, sweet, port<br />Cherry/tobacco nose<br />Low tannin<br />Best with parmesan pastas, lean red meats, BBQ<br />
  24. 24. Norton<br />Native American Grape<br />1873<br />“Best red wine of all nations”<br />Vienna international competition<br />Small cluster, berry size<br />Very dark red wine<br />Dark fruit, rich pipe tobacco, smoke<br />Great with rich, smoky meats<br />
  25. 25. Thanks!<br /><br />