The Negative and Positive Impacts of Video Games on Student Development A Literature Review Presented by Brad Gibbons
Rationale• Connecting with the Digital Native• Understanding Video Games• Impact of Games on Students• Implementation, Design and Monitoring of Video Games
Connecting with the Digital Student• Stereotyped as having poor attention spans• They have a relationship to knowledge gathering which is alien to their parents and teachers• different style of learning due to evolving technology causing the brain to reorganize itself and unfold new cognitive skills – this phenomenon is referred to as “Neuroplasticity”
• Green & Hannon (2007, p. 25) suggest:recognise and value the learning that goes on outsidethe classroomsupport this learning by providing a space to reflect on itdevelop it so students can recognise and transfer thoseskills in new situations and contexts
• The Institute of Research Learning (2000) indicate the individual learns 20 percent formally and 80 percent informally• Andreatos (2007), the informal information students gather from virtual communities (VC) concerning practical subject matter may possibly be superior to traditional and academic sources such as books
• The PEW Internet Research Project 2008 findings indicate: 97% of teens play video games three-quarters of teens play games with others 35% of girls and 65% of boys are daily gamers
Understanding Video Games• Form of entertainment• It is multifunction interactive media tool• Educational Software is “Edutainment”
What is a Video Game?• Computer type of device and input devices• Designed for one or more players• Contains elements of rules, goals, challenges, mystery, curiosity, co mpetition, skill and/or conflict• A wide assortment of genres and mixed genres
• Types of game genres include: Multi-user Virtual Environment (MUVE) Virtual communities VC Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) Role playing RPG shooter games strategy games
• Types of games include: Educational Consumer off-the-shelf (COTTS)• Ratings associated with COTTS include: Early childhood Everyone Teen Mature Adult subject content
Impact of Video Games on Students• There are several areas where Video Games may have an impact on students which include: Motivation Collaboration Behaviour Brain-based learning Academic Achievement
Motivation• Students are unengaged by traditional teaching delivery methods• The majority of the research indicate games as a leverage for motivation for all students and helps those of lower abilities become more successful.• Motivation appears to trigger and instill confidence
• Exergames motivated disengaged students or low self-confidence students to participate in Physical education.• Inspires students to relate their gaming experience to various subject areas• increase in self-esteem and uncertainty in certain math concepts did not detract from their enjoyment or engagement
• Motivation factors are dependent on the following: Sufficient time to complete game Integrating game time with classroom and computerlab activities Design specifically for course, student ability, andopportunities for collaboration
Collaboration• important for students with lower prior math knowledge• 75% of middle-school students prefer to play multiplayer video games, enjoy achieving the goals together, and like teaching each other different skills.
Behaviour• Behaviour issues that may arise from video game play include: Social Isolation Dependency Aggressiveness
• Social Isolation Excessive game play may take students away time fromother typical activities students normally engage in on adaily basis. Hofferth’s (2010) study did not indicate any relationbetween gameplay and isolation, but rather promotedsocialization through multiplayer games.
• Dependency Too much game time can negatively impact studentachievement. Too much game time takes away from studying,reading, and reflecting.
• Aggressiveness Violent games can lead to aggressiveness mainly for boys Violent games are less likely to cause aggressivenessin girls. Other variables such as socioeconomics and parentalmonitoring may play a factor in aggressiveness
Brain-based Learning• Video games can foster brain-based learning• appeases the new way of thinking or brain development of the digital native• Highly engaged activities such as video games promotes neuroplasticity causing the brain to reorganize itself and promote higher-order thinking.
• Key stages in human learning development may be an opportunity to take advantage of video games as a learning tool• Myelinisation is a component of brain development and is influenced by learning and experience• This is an important component in learning response and efficiency to environmental change
• Appropriately designed video games promotes attributes associated with neuroplasticity.• Video games involving problem solving and real world scenarios encourage higher order thinking.
Academic Achievement• seems to have positive implications• appropriately designed video games may foster student achievement• problem solving, fact/recall processes, cognitive, metacognitive, motor and spatial skills, and collaboration are some of the positive effects associated with a well-designed game
• Connections made between informal learning through video games to formal learning in the classroom• Positive changes in the students’ attitudes, self- confidence and self-efficiency
Conclusion • Video games can motivate and have a positive impact on students given the following criteria: they are designed properly Given sufficient time to play Meets the abilities of the students Integrated with curriculum and classroom activities Monitored by parents and teachers
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