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Chapter 6       S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
Why Important?   The success of social skills programming    depends on distinguishing between       Skill acquisition d...
Skill Acquisition Deficits Absence     of a specific skill or behavior Child or adolescent needs to be taught  the skill...
Performance Deficit Skill      or behavior is present, but not  displayed Child or adolescent needs to be  supported; fa...
Important Note Being able to recite how to perform a skill or behavior and actually being able to perform the skill or be...
Skill Acquisition-Performance DeficitDichotomy: Link to Intervention Guides   selection of intervention strategies Skill...
Skill Acquisition Continuum Novice Intermediate Mastery                     S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
Factors Affecting Performance Motivation Sensory   sensitivities Anxiety Attention   and impulsivity Memory Self-eff...
Factors Affecting Performance Can   impact mastered skills, too                                      S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
Motivation Possible   reasons for lack of motivation     Experienced peer failure and rejection     Lack of common inte...
Sensory Sensitivities Can  involve any of the senses Can lead to social withdrawal,  avoidance, diminished social  perfo...
Anxiety Can  range from mild to high levels Strategies     Determine how the anxiety impacts      performance (e.g., wi...
Attention and Impulsivity Can  impede social reciprocity and turn  taking Strategies     Self-monitoring     Self-regu...
Memory Memory   to do something (versus how to  do something) Strategies    Prompts    Behavior repetitions           ...
Self-Efficacy Confidence Possible   consequences of low self- efficacy     Fear and/or avoidance of social      interac...
Strategies That EnhanceSelf-Efficacy (Bandura, 1994) Mastery   Experiences     Experience personal success and      acco...
Strategies That EnhanceSelf-Efficacy (Bandura, 1994) Successful    Models     Observe model similar to self     “If she...
Strategies That EnhanceSelf-Efficacy (Bandura, 1994) Social   Persuasion     Encouragement     Positive feedback       ...
Strategies That EnhanceSelf-Efficacy (Bandura, 1994) Manage     Anxious Responses     Teach children to recognize and   ...
Movement Differences Starting     Initiating movements     Possible need: a simple prompt to start Stopping     Termi...
Movement Differences Switching    Transitioning from one thought, activity, or     emotion to another Combining    Pro...
Skill Acquisition Deficit or   Performance Deficit:Distinguishing Between the             Two      Five Questions to Ask  ...
Question #1 Does the child perform the skill across multiple settings and persons?    If no: probably a skill acquisitio...
Question #2 Doesthe child perform the skill without support or assistance?    If no: typically a skill acquisition defic...
Question #3 Doesthe child perform the skill fluently and effortlessly?    If yes: probably a performance deficit        ...
Question #4 Does the child perform the skill when reinforcement is provided?    If yes: performance deficit             ...
Question #5 Does the child perform the skill when environmental modifications are made?    If yes: performance deficit  ...
References Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V. S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior, (Vol. 4, pp. 7...
Chapter 7       S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
 There is no single intervention that will help all children and adolescents with ASD strengthen their social skills     ...
 Need  to use a combination of strategies that prove most effective for a given child’s or adolescent’s needs    What wo...
Matching Strategies Match    strategies with the type of skill deficit    Skill acquisition    Social performance      ...
Questions to Answer WhenSelecting Intervention Strategies Which specific social skills will be targeted? Does the strate...
Questions to Answer WhenSelecting Intervention Strategies What   is the child’s developmental level (language  and cognit...
Questions to Answer WhenSelecting Intervention Strategies Ifthe strategy is not supported by research, what is  the ratio...
Social Accommodation vs.Social Assimilation Important   to consider prior to selecting  intervention strategies The key ...
Accommodation Modifiesthe physical or social environment to promote positive social interactions    For example: trainin...
Assimilation Instructionthat facilitates skill  development that allows the child to be  more successful in social intera...
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Making the Connection - Bellini Chapters 6 and 7

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This presentation is in alignment with the Bellini text, covering chapters 6 and 7.

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Making the Connection - Bellini Chapters 6 and 7

  1. 1. Chapter 6 S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
  2. 2. Why Important? The success of social skills programming depends on distinguishing between  Skill acquisition deficits and  Performance deficits The distinction between the two kinds of deficits guides the selection of intervention strategies S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
  3. 3. Skill Acquisition Deficits Absence of a specific skill or behavior Child or adolescent needs to be taught the skill or behavior S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
  4. 4. Performance Deficit Skill or behavior is present, but not displayed Child or adolescent needs to be supported; factor impeding implementation needs to be addressed  Motivation  Anxiety  Sensory sensitivities, etc. S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
  5. 5. Important Note Being able to recite how to perform a skill or behavior and actually being able to perform the skill or behavior are two different things S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
  6. 6. Skill Acquisition-Performance DeficitDichotomy: Link to Intervention Guides selection of intervention strategies Skill acquisition deficit  Teach new skills Performance deficit  Enhance existing skills  Remove barriers to success S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
  7. 7. Skill Acquisition Continuum Novice Intermediate Mastery S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
  8. 8. Factors Affecting Performance Motivation Sensory sensitivities Anxiety Attention and impulsivity Memory Self-efficacy Movement differences S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
  9. 9. Factors Affecting Performance Can impact mastered skills, too S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
  10. 10. Motivation Possible reasons for lack of motivation  Experienced peer failure and rejection  Lack of common interests with peers Strategies  Expose to positive peer interactions  Provide reinforcement for peer interactions (only if needed) S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
  11. 11. Sensory Sensitivities Can involve any of the senses Can lead to social withdrawal, avoidance, diminished social performance Strategies  Sensory integration  Self-relaxation  Environmental modifications S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
  12. 12. Anxiety Can range from mild to high levels Strategies  Determine how the anxiety impacts performance (e.g., withdrawal, social phobias)  Implement plan to reduce anxiety S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
  13. 13. Attention and Impulsivity Can impede social reciprocity and turn taking Strategies  Self-monitoring  Self-regulation  Planning S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
  14. 14. Memory Memory to do something (versus how to do something) Strategies  Prompts  Behavior repetitions S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
  15. 15. Self-Efficacy Confidence Possible consequences of low self- efficacy  Fear and/or avoidance of social interactions  Giving up easily  Viewing failure as confirmation of shortcomings  Anxiety  Depression S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
  16. 16. Strategies That EnhanceSelf-Efficacy (Bandura, 1994) Mastery Experiences  Experience personal success and accomplishment  Avoid failure S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
  17. 17. Strategies That EnhanceSelf-Efficacy (Bandura, 1994) Successful Models  Observe model similar to self  “If she can do it, I can do it” S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
  18. 18. Strategies That EnhanceSelf-Efficacy (Bandura, 1994) Social Persuasion  Encouragement  Positive feedback S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
  19. 19. Strategies That EnhanceSelf-Efficacy (Bandura, 1994) Manage Anxious Responses  Teach children to recognize and understand their physiological responses  Teach regulation strategies S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
  20. 20. Movement Differences Starting  Initiating movements  Possible need: a simple prompt to start Stopping  Terminating activities  Possible need: a cue to end S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
  21. 21. Movement Differences Switching  Transitioning from one thought, activity, or emotion to another Combining  Processing multiple sensory inputs at once S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
  22. 22. Skill Acquisition Deficit or Performance Deficit:Distinguishing Between the Two Five Questions to Ask S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
  23. 23. Question #1 Does the child perform the skill across multiple settings and persons?  If no: probably a skill acquisition deficit S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
  24. 24. Question #2 Doesthe child perform the skill without support or assistance?  If no: typically a skill acquisition deficit S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
  25. 25. Question #3 Doesthe child perform the skill fluently and effortlessly?  If yes: probably a performance deficit S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
  26. 26. Question #4 Does the child perform the skill when reinforcement is provided?  If yes: performance deficit S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
  27. 27. Question #5 Does the child perform the skill when environmental modifications are made?  If yes: performance deficit S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
  28. 28. References Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V. S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior, (Vol. 4, pp. 71-81). New York: Academic Press. (Reprinted in H. Friedman [Ed.], Encyclopedia of mental health. San Diego: Academic Press, 1998). S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
  29. 29. Chapter 7 S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
  30. 30.  There is no single intervention that will help all children and adolescents with ASD strengthen their social skills S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
  31. 31.  Need to use a combination of strategies that prove most effective for a given child’s or adolescent’s needs  What works well for one child or adolescent may not work well for another S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
  32. 32. Matching Strategies Match strategies with the type of skill deficit  Skill acquisition  Social performance S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
  33. 33. Questions to Answer WhenSelecting Intervention Strategies Which specific social skills will be targeted? Does the strategy match the type of skill deficit demonstrated (for each skill)? S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
  34. 34. Questions to Answer WhenSelecting Intervention Strategies What is the child’s developmental level (language and cognitive functioning)? Is the strategy supported by research? S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
  35. 35. Questions to Answer WhenSelecting Intervention Strategies Ifthe strategy is not supported by research, what is the rationale/logic for using it? Which components of social interaction skills (i.e., thinking, feeling, doing) does the strategy address? S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
  36. 36. Social Accommodation vs.Social Assimilation Important to consider prior to selecting intervention strategies The key is to address both  Teach skills and modify the environment  Balance based on the child’s or adolescent’s developmental skills (what is appropriate for him and his areas of strength and challenge) S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
  37. 37. Accommodation Modifiesthe physical or social environment to promote positive social interactions  For example: training peer mentors, conducting autism awareness training Emphasizes changing the environment Enhances social performance S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC
  38. 38. Assimilation Instructionthat facilitates skill development that allows the child to be more successful in social interactions Emphasis is on changing the behavior of the child or adolescent with ASD Enhances skill acquisition S. Bellini ©2008 AAPC

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