Backyard Camelot Wpl 2007

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Backyard Camelot Wpl 2007

  1. 1. Backyard Camelot: Recreating the Medieval Garden Betty Braaksma/Berengaria of Outremer Seneschal, Barony of Castel Rouge Winnipeg Public Library April 20 & 26, 2007
  2. 2. How do you picture the Middle Ages?
  3. 3. How I picture the Middle Ages
  4. 4. The Middle Ages in a Nutshell <ul><li>Time period – roughly from the fall of Rome (476) until the death of Elizabeth I (1603) </li></ul><ul><li>Often described in terms of “ages” or periods, eg. Dark Ages, Viking Age, Romanesque, Gothic, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Canadians usually learn about medieval Europe, but the world was less isolated than previously thought </li></ul>
  5. 5. Medieval travellers
  6. 6. A Hierarchical Society <ul><li>Nobility owned the land and provided services such as protection and shelter </li></ul><ul><li>Monasteries were also major landowners </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants worked the land and provided food & taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants had a strip of land which they could use to grow food for the family; also a garden at the house </li></ul>
  7. 7. A Religious Society <ul><li>Everyone in Europe was Roman Catholic, until the Reformation (late 15 th /early 16 th century) </li></ul><ul><li>The hours of each person’s day were organized according to the church calendar </li></ul><ul><li>The year was organized according to the liturgy </li></ul><ul><li>Zodiac/astrology also used </li></ul>http://www.clas.ufl.edu/users/hasty/castles/abbeypage/choirnuns.jpg
  8. 8. All wealth was land-based <ul><li>Nobles’ money came from estate production </li></ul><ul><li>Private ownership of land as we know it was unknown </li></ul><ul><li>Development of cities & city-states in the 11 th century saw shift in economics, but most power stayed with the land until the late 18 th century </li></ul>
  9. 9. Everyone had a garden
  10. 10. Types of Gardens http://www.abbeville.com/gardening/images/history-middleages.jpg
  11. 11. Pleasure Garden/Herber/Hortus Conclusus
  12. 12. Design & features <ul><li>Owned by the wealthy; super-rich would have had pleasure parks </li></ul><ul><li>Small and enclosed = privacy/intimacy </li></ul><ul><li>Lawns – “flowery mead” </li></ul><ul><li>Ornamental trees </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of flowers, containers </li></ul><ul><li>Fountain/water feature </li></ul><ul><li>Exedra/turf seat – no lawn furniture </li></ul><ul><li>Pathways </li></ul><ul><li>Arbours </li></ul><ul><li>Symmetrical </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic/mystical </li></ul>
  13. 16. Plants <ul><li>Roses </li></ul><ul><li>Hollyhocks </li></ul><ul><li>Thyme, chamomile, </li></ul><ul><li>Irises </li></ul><ul><li>Lilies </li></ul><ul><li>Pinks/carnations </li></ul><ul><li>Lavender </li></ul><ul><li>Tulips (later periods) </li></ul><ul><li>Feverfew </li></ul><ul><li>Poppies </li></ul><ul><li>Fruit & flowering trees </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul>http://www.finns-books.com/joanna.htm
  14. 17. Kitchen Garden http://www.abcgallery.com/B/bruegel/bruegel110.html
  15. 18. Design & Features <ul><li>Enclosed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>keep animals out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>most popular material – wattle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Raised beds </li></ul><ul><li>Rectangular or square plots </li></ul><ul><li>One type of plant per plot </li></ul><ul><li>Pathways to allow for access </li></ul><ul><li>Fruit trees </li></ul>
  16. 20. Plants <ul><li>&quot;The garden of the Arden peasant's holding was an important, if poorly documented, resource. Apple, cherry, plum and pear trees seem to have been common on many holdings, as in 1463 at Erdington, where nearly all peasant holdings contained orchards. The range of crops cultivated on the peasant's curtilage is poorly recorded, but the garden of Richard Sharpmore of Erdington was probably typical. In 1380 trespassing pigs ruined his vegetables, grass, beans and peas.&quot; -- Andrew Watkins, &quot;Peasants in Arden&quot;,  in Richard Britnell, ed. Daily Life in the Late Middle Ages , (Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 1998), p 94. </li></ul>
  17. 21. Plants, cont’d) <ul><li>Colewort/kale </li></ul><ul><li>Cabbage </li></ul><ul><li>Leeks </li></ul><ul><li>Parsley </li></ul><ul><li>Garlic </li></ul><ul><li>Chives </li></ul><ul><li>Onions </li></ul><ul><li>Parsnips </li></ul><ul><li>Turnips </li></ul><ul><li>Beans </li></ul><ul><li>Peas </li></ul><ul><li>Dill </li></ul><ul><li>Coriander </li></ul><ul><li>Beets </li></ul><ul><li>Horehound </li></ul><ul><li>Borage </li></ul><ul><li>Basil </li></ul><ul><li>Violet </li></ul><ul><li>Nettle </li></ul><ul><li>Spinach </li></ul><ul><li>Lettuce </li></ul><ul><li>Marigold </li></ul><ul><li>Mint </li></ul><ul><li>Dandelion </li></ul><ul><li>Thyme </li></ul><ul><li>Sorrel </li></ul><ul><li>Radish </li></ul><ul><li>Sage </li></ul><ul><li>Carrot </li></ul><ul><li>Etc.,etc., </li></ul>
  18. 22. What’s missing? <ul><li>Potatoes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Native to South America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Discovered” by the Spanish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced to Europe in late 1500’s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tomatoes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Native to Central/South America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Discovered” by the Spanish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced to Europe in mid 1500’s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Corn/Maize </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Native to the Americas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Discovered’ by the Spanish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced to Europe in late 1400’s/early 1500’s </li></ul></ul>www.wikipedia.org
  19. 23. Physic/Healing Garden http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~helphand/medievalpgsone/medievalpg5.html
  20. 24. Design & features <ul><li>Same as other gardens! </li></ul><ul><li>Poisonous plants would have been fenced off </li></ul><ul><li>All women were expected to be able to brew remedies in their “stillroom” (i.e. distilling) </li></ul>
  21. 25. Plants <ul><li>Angelica </li></ul><ul><li>Bay </li></ul><ul><li>Betony </li></ul><ul><li>Bugloss </li></ul><ul><li>Chervil </li></ul><ul><li>Cinquefoil </li></ul><ul><li>Clover </li></ul><ul><li>Comfrey </li></ul><ul><li>Dittany </li></ul><ul><li>Hemlock </li></ul><ul><li>Hemp </li></ul><ul><li>Horehound </li></ul><ul><li>Hyssop </li></ul><ul><li>Iris </li></ul><ul><li>Lady’s mantle </li></ul><ul><li>Licorice </li></ul><ul><li>Mandrake </li></ul><ul><li>Monkshood </li></ul><ul><li>Mullein </li></ul><ul><li>Nettle </li></ul><ul><li>Nightshade </li></ul><ul><li>Peony </li></ul><ul><li>Pine </li></ul><ul><li>Poppy </li></ul><ul><li>Rue </li></ul><ul><li>St. Johns Wort </li></ul><ul><li>Strawberry </li></ul><ul><li>Tansy </li></ul><ul><li>Woad </li></ul><ul><li>Wormwood </li></ul>
  22. 26. Monastery Gardens <ul><li>&quot;Within the enclosure of this wall stand many and various trees, prolific in bearing fruit . It resembles a wood, and since it is near the cell of the sick brethren, it offers some comfort to their infirmities, while providing at the same time a spacious place for those who walk, and a sweet place where those who are overheated can rest . Where the orchard ends the garden begins. Here too a lovely prospect presents itself to the infirm brethren; they can sit on the green edge of the great fountain, and watch the little fishes challenging one another, as it were, to war-like encounters, as they meet and play in the water .&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>  (quoted by Paul Meyvaert, in &quot;The Medieval Monastic Garden,&quot; Medieval Gardens , Dumbarton Oaks, 1986) </li></ul>
  23. 27. Design & features <ul><li>Based upon the idealized design of St. Gall, Switzerland, ca. 890 </li></ul><ul><li>Rectangular; enclosed </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into different areas – food, medicine, ornamental </li></ul><ul><li>Had to serve the needs of the community…”Brother Cadfael” </li></ul><ul><li>Were the model for later botanical gardens </li></ul>
  24. 28. St. Gall Plan http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~helphand/medievalimagesone/image23.jpg
  25. 29. Multitasking Plants & Herbs <ul><li>“ For the sickly take this wort rosemary , pound it with oil, smear the sickly one, wonderfully thou healest him.” </li></ul><ul><li>… From A Saxon herbal </li></ul>http://home.olemiss.edu/~tjray/images/medieval_pix/sickroom.gif
  26. 30. <ul><li>Medieval people saw all plants as having nutritional, medicinal and ornamental uses </li></ul><ul><li>Our distinction of “herbal” vs “non-herbal” is artificial – in a sense, everything was an herb! </li></ul><ul><li>Plants had symbolic/religious/mystical significance that influenced nutritional or ornamental use: “doctrine of signatures” </li></ul>
  27. 31. Examples <ul><li>Madonna lily = </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purity, chastity, the Virgin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pretty & fragrant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulb & leaves thought to cure snakebite, bruises & leprosy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Roses = </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbolic of the Virgin; love </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pretty & fragrant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roses + hot water & honey used for hangovers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rosewater commonly used in recipes </li></ul></ul>
  28. 32. Medieval Gardens today <ul><li>No gardens exist from early medieval times </li></ul><ul><li>However….one garden has been in continuous use since 1545 </li></ul><ul><li>Located at the University of Padua in northern Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Connected to the medical school there </li></ul><ul><li>“ Physick” garden </li></ul>
  29. 34. Recreating medieval gardens <ul><li>Growing interest in historical gardening </li></ul><ul><li>Many sites around the world where public gardens have been designed to duplicate medieval gardens </li></ul><ul><li>Often done in conjunction with horticultural programs, botanical gardens, estates </li></ul><ul><li>New website under development: The Digital Medieval Garden </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.afid.bris.ac.uk/med_garden/ </li></ul><ul><li>Medieval gardens appearing in pop culture? </li></ul>
  30. 37. Medieval gardens today Monastic garden created for the Malvern garden show, 2006. Worcestershire .
  31. 38. Bede’s World – Museum of Early Medieval Life in Northumbria http://www.bedesworld.co.uk/bedesworld-herbgarden.php
  32. 39. Mount Grace Priory, Yorkshire
  33. 40. Cadfael’s Herb Garden - Shrewsbury http://www.virtual-shropshire.co.uk/gallery/shrewsbury_abbey/0059_012
  34. 41. Bella Umbria Kitchen Garden, Perugia http://www.bellaumbria.net/Perugia/event.htm?ev=867185355
  35. 42. Les Jardins de Prieure d’Orsan, France
  36. 43. Jardin de Cinq Sens, Yvoire, France http://www.jardin5sens.net/
  37. 44. The Cloisters, New York: Cuxa Cloister http://www.pbase.com/image/40834221
  38. 45. Pennsylvania State University Medieval Garden project <ul><li>One of most extensive ongoing projects </li></ul><ul><li>Covers period from 1250-1650 </li></ul><ul><li>Total size 200’x120’ </li></ul><ul><li>Subdivided into 8 10’x10’ plots </li></ul>
  39. 46. Parts of the Penn State Medieval Garden <ul><li>Orchard - apples </li></ul><ul><li>Field plots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ things that need room” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barley, oats, wheat, flax, onions, fava beans, peas, gourds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contemplation garden </li></ul><ul><li>Kitchen garden </li></ul><ul><li>Pleasure garden </li></ul>
  40. 47. Canada: University of British Columbia’s Physic Garden http://www.ubcbotanicalgarden.org/potd/2005/05/ubc_physic_gard.php
  41. 48. Smaller scale projects: Immanuel Lutheran Church, Greenwood, S.C. http://www.ilconline.org/Gardenphoto.shtml
  42. 49. Mary Gardens <ul><li>Movement began in Philadelphia in 1951 </li></ul><ul><li>Based on monastic gardens and the devotion to Mary that was a feature of 14 th & 15 th century culture </li></ul><ul><li>All plants have a connection to Mary </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.mgardens.org/ </li></ul>
  43. 50. St. Theresa's Homeschool group (Douglasville, Georgia) http://www.catholicmom.com/mary_gardens.htm
  44. 51. Commercial/private gardens http://www.hortus3d.com/images/Prj_etv_ma.jpg Hortus 3D – commercial French Landscape designers
  45. 52. Our very own….Sage Garden Herbs
  46. 53. What about my garden?
  47. 54. Under construction, but…. <ul><li>I DO have Roman Garden </li></ul>
  48. 55. Pompeii – reconstructed garden
  49. 56. Winnipeg – Roman-style garden
  50. 63. Ready to try it yourself? <ul><li>Online : </li></ul><ul><li>Medieval Herbs for the Very Small Garden </li></ul><ul><li>http://gallowglass.org/jadwiga/herbs/smallherbs.html </li></ul><ul><li>Book : </li></ul><ul><li>Sylvia Landsberg. The Medieval Garden . </li></ul>http://medieval.mrugala.net/Enluminures/Calendrier/09.jpg
  51. 64. Questions? Thank You! http://medievalandrenaissancestudies.vassar.edu/images/brueghel.jpg
  52. 65. The Barony of Castel Rouge www.castelrouge.ca

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