FINDING THE IMPACT OF
      ENVIRONMENTAL
        CONSERVATION
 THROUGH COMMUNITY
        MOBILIZATION
                   ...
The present study is based
 on two aspects.
  … UNDP-GEF-CEE SGP
    Projects implemented by The
    Humanity &Utkal Seva...
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
  To find and study the impact of
   conservation of environment through
   community mobilization...
METHODOLOGY

   As the SGP project implemented by “The
    Humanity” is going on at 50 villages
    located at the Khapra...
Methodology Contd….

   Personal
    interview, Observation, Indirect
    Questioning methods & village stay
    have bee...
METHODOLOGY FOR KBPA
  The KBPA campaign involved meeting
   the principals/Headmasters of different
   schools and expla...
SGP PROJECTS
Objectives of the SGP Project by
             The Humanity
    To facilitate, development of NTFP &
     Medicinal plants...
Objectives Contd….
   To facilitate formulation of an integrated
    community based forest management plan with
    spec...
Findings
Agriculture


                                                      Seed/Grain Bank




       Goat Rearing

             ...
NTFP Value Addition
COST BENEFIT FROM NTFPs
           Total

Nageshwar Flower

        Chakada

        Bheluan
                             ...
OIL EXTRACTION
   Before extracting oils through the mills available at
    distant villages.
   The oils were toxic.
 ...
COST ANALYSIS OF OIL
                EXTRACTION
                                                       Profit From Extract...
Processing
                                  Extraction


               Oil Extraction



Oil Flow                Residue...
SEED BANK/GRAIN BANK

   They are storing both
    traditional and commercial
    seeds and grains.                      ...
ORGANIC FARMING
                                SGP Grant




                    Training on Organic Farming (30 Farmers)...
Mixed Cultivation               Discussion with Organic Farmer




                             Vermi Compost




  Sunflo...
NURSERY PLANTATION
   Five nurseries have been developed with more
    than 50 types of herbal medicinal plants, out of
 ...
Junanibahal Nursery




                          Khaprakhol School
TalenPali School Nursey
                          Stud...
BAIDYAs
   Gandhamardan Mountain Range located
    near Harishankar in Khaprakhol Block has
    vast collection of herbal...
FOREST PROTECTION
       COMMITTEES
   Ten FPCs have been formed and eight
    have been strengthened to
       protect ...
NEW PLANTATION
IMPACTS
Impact on environment            Impact on livelihood economy of communities      Other Impacts
Creating and training wome...
Impact on environment         Impact on livelihood economy of             Other Impacts
                              comm...
OBJECTIVE OF SGP PROJECT BY USS
   Utilize the unutilized and under utilized natural
    resources like land and water to...
FINDINGS
SHGS
   Total 10 SHGs till now; seven in the five old villages
    and three in 3 new villages.
   Before borrowing from...
LAND DEVELOPMENT

  Before lands were not plain and unfit for
   cultivation leading to dependency on
   forest.
  As pa...
Before   After
Total developed Land
Village Name   No of Farmers   Total Area of Land Developed (In Acres)
               Benefited
     ...
Name of Farmer       Village           Area of Land       Return from these lands (In Rs)/Year
                           ...
25000




20000




                                                                         Return from these lands
15000...
Better Farming of 5 other
villages




   IRRIGATION               Sreema Seeds
   (90 Acres)




                        ...
Village     Irrigation
                         Activity       Cost (In Rs)   Revenue (In   Profit (In Rs)
Name        Lan...
COST ANALYSIS OF POND
 45000



 40000



 35000



 30000
                                                            Cos...
PISCICULTURE
        Pisciculture has been promoted in the SGP project for the 44
         families not having farming la...
Organic Farming
                                   SGP Grant



                   Training on Organic Farming (300)




 ...
CASE STUDY
Farmer’s Name                         Rama Chandra Mahanta
Farm Land                             3 Acres
Cultiv...
Agro Service Centre
                         SGP Grant


  AGRO Service Centre




                        SHG
Sickle sprayer           paddy thresher

                 Kurpi




winnower
PLANT DISTRIBUTION
Village           No of Benefited   Details of Plants per
                  Families                 Fa...
Lemon




Mango           Teak   Coconut
Paddy
                Maize n Others
         Ragi




Tomato             Brinjal




 Bitter-Gourd
                  Ladi...
Seed Distribution
                          SGP Grant



                   Seed Distribution (15 Types of Vegetable
     ...
SHG
Grain Banks




                                Maintains
                10 KG/Year
    SGP Grant                    ...
IMPACTS
Impact on Environment                         Impact on Livelihood Economy of         Other Impacts
                      ...
Impact on Environment                    Impact on Livelihood Economy of the         Other Impacts
                       ...
KBPA
     A total of 18 schools in Bhubaneswar were
      visited in the preliminary phase of KBPA
      campaign.
     ...
IMPACTS
    The students really felt the situation regarding climate
     change and expressed their concern for the same...
DETAILS OF THE SCHOOLS VISITED
                                           Date of Preliminary   Date of Voting   No of Stu...
No of Students Voted
250



200



150



100



 50
                             No of Students Voted



 0
Explaining KBPA Process            Distributing Voting Slips




   Students Listening     Explaining Pick Right Actions
Final Presentation SIP at CEE
Final Presentation SIP at CEE
Final Presentation SIP at CEE
Final Presentation SIP at CEE
Final Presentation SIP at CEE
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Final Presentation SIP at CEE

  1. 1. FINDING THE IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION THROUGH COMMUNITY MOBILIZATION BY:- BIBHU PRASAD TRIPATHY Icfai Business School Enrollment No: 08BS0000761
  2. 2. The present study is based on two aspects. … UNDP-GEF-CEE SGP Projects implemented by The Humanity &Utkal Sevak Samaj (USS) . … Kaun Banega Bharat ka Paryavaran Ambassador (KBPA) campaign.
  3. 3. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY  To find and study the impact of conservation of environment through community mobilization.  To study and compare the impacts of the initiatives taken for the biodiversity conservation at the different geographical regions.  To spread the message of climate change and the necessary actions required to check the same through the KBPA campaign.
  4. 4. METHODOLOGY  As the SGP project implemented by “The Humanity” is going on at 50 villages located at the Khaprakhol Block in Bolangir dist., 10 villages were visited for studying the various activities for the primary data collection.  The SGP project implemented by “USS” has been implemented at 5 villages (2 villages in Tangi-Choudwar Block in Cuttack dist. and 3 villages in Badachana Block in Jajpur dist). All were visited for data collection.
  5. 5. Methodology Contd….  Personal interview, Observation, Indirect Questioning methods & village stay have been used for primary data collection as … Most of the data are of qualitative nature and … The educational backgrounds of the respondents are not so strong.  The reports prepared by The Humanity and USS the implementing NGOs for SGP projects have been refered for secondary data
  6. 6. METHODOLOGY FOR KBPA  The KBPA campaign involved meeting the principals/Headmasters of different schools and explaining them the procedure for the same in the preliminary phase.  The voting has been done at the second phase by visiting the schools.  Also the impact of the campaign on the Students/Teachers has been studied.
  7. 7. SGP PROJECTS
  8. 8. Objectives of the SGP Project by The Humanity  To facilitate, development of NTFP & Medicinal plants based community level enterprises in order to secure sustainable livelihoods as well as conservation of eco system for forest dependent marginalized sections especially women.  To take steps for conservation of medicinal plants through carrying out cultivation in selected community lands, school campus and developing demonstration field and herbal garden in the project area.
  9. 9. Objectives Contd….  To facilitate formulation of an integrated community based forest management plan with special emphasis on eco system.  To facilitate formation of forest management groups (FMGs) and networking among such groups in order to have a comprehensive and effective management of greater area of forest and its biodiversity through enhancement of their skill and capacities.  To take steps to check ecological hazards by popularizing and promoting the traditional variety of seeds through community initiatives.
  10. 10. Findings
  11. 11. Agriculture Seed/Grain Bank Goat Rearing Oil Extraction Primary Traders For NTFP SHG SGP Grant Community Collect NTFPs Forests
  12. 12. NTFP Value Addition
  13. 13. COST BENEFIT FROM NTFPs Total Nageshwar Flower Chakada Bheluan Price of Selling (In Rs) Bela Collectively through SHGs (After)/ KG Tamarind Price of Selling (In Rs) Char Nut Individually (Before) / KG Amla Bahada Harida Mahua Flower 0 50 100 150 200
  14. 14. OIL EXTRACTION  Before extracting oils through the mills available at distant villages.  The oils were toxic.  The mill owners used to keep the residues after extraction.  After the SGP project implementation, 15 oil extracting machines have been provided to different SHGs and individuals and training has been provided.  Simple mechanism and cost effective.  Trainings on bottling of these oils.  Quality of the oil extracted is very higher than before as the toxicity is reduced substantially in this method.  The cost analysis is provided below
  15. 15. COST ANALYSIS OF OIL EXTRACTION Profit From Extraction/KG Cost of Extraction/liter (In Rs) Quality of Oil (In Rs) Condition Processing Transportation Total Residues Total Before 1 1 2 Nil Nil Highly Toxic Toxicity After 0.86 Nil 0.86 3 3 substantially reduced Net Profit/Kg : 1.14 + 3 = Rs 4.14
  16. 16. Processing Extraction Oil Extraction Oil Flow Residue Bottling
  17. 17. SEED BANK/GRAIN BANK  They are storing both traditional and commercial seeds and grains. Rice Grains  This helps them to use at lower costs and reduced dependency on Government.  Also, more than 20 traditional and local seeds have been preserved in this process. Ragi Seeds
  18. 18. ORGANIC FARMING SGP Grant Training on Organic Farming (30 Farmers) Soil Productivity Healthy Crops Production Cost & & Vegetables Maintenance
  19. 19. Mixed Cultivation Discussion with Organic Farmer Vermi Compost Sunflowers & Ground nuts
  20. 20. NURSERY PLANTATION  Five nurseries have been developed with more than 50 types of herbal medicinal plants, out of which three were visited.  Two have been developed at Talenpali School and Khaprakhol Govt. UP School. One at Junanibahal.  The students and the public are thus knowing about the use of these medicinal plants like Gudmari, Bacha, Akarkara, Kedar, Lemon Grass, Gugul, Ashwagandha, Jatropha, Kumkum, Dankari, Brudhatarak, Chireita, Amla, Basanga, Begunia, Guluchi, Bhismajadi etc.
  21. 21. Junanibahal Nursery Khaprakhol School TalenPali School Nursey Students taking care of plants
  22. 22. BAIDYAs  Gandhamardan Mountain Range located near Harishankar in Khaprakhol Block has vast collection of herbal medicinal plants.  Seventy Baidyas part of Baidyas Organization as part of the SGP project.  Trained on collecting the herbals from the nearby Jungles in sustainable manner and plant them near their villages.  Received trainings for identifying different herbal medicinal plants.  Have more than 500 varieties of herbals with them.  People are coming in more number to them after they received training.
  23. 23. FOREST PROTECTION COMMITTEES  Ten FPCs have been formed and eight have been strengthened to  protect forest land of about 1500 Acres &  plant new trees to regenerate the degraded areas.  Four of them were interviewed.  They have regenerated about 150 Acres of forest land that were degraded before the SGP project started.  Coordination of FPCs.
  24. 24. NEW PLANTATION
  25. 25. IMPACTS
  26. 26. Impact on environment Impact on livelihood economy of communities Other Impacts Creating and training women SHGs 1. Collecting the NTFPs in 1. Getting greater value on the sales of 1. The social bonding among the sustainable manner after NTFPs. members has increased. training. 2. Also getting loans from Govt. 2. Have learnt the business Skill. 2. No more burning the dry 3. Taking loan from their savings at 3% p.m. 3. Watershed dept. of Govt. and other leaves while collecting which is far better than that from local NGOs are replicating this system for Mahua flowers. Hence no landlords. its success. more fire in forest. 4. Getting more profits by doing business in a group. Training on NTFP collection, Value addition & Collective Marketing 1. As people are now 1. People are getting more profit on NTFPs 1. Qualities of the NTFPs have dependent on NTFPs due to directly selling to the primary increased. instead of cutting the traders. 2. Other NGOs and Govt. also providing trees for woods, the 2. They are getting more profits on oil trainings to some SHGs on NTFPs. forests are conserved. extraction and also getting good quality. 3. Some companies like CCD have 2. Biodiversity is conserved. come to collect the NTFPs directly as the qualities have increased. Local Food Security through Grain/Seed Bank system and Organic Farming 1. The traditional grains are 1. The people are getting the seeds directly 1. The absence of pesticides implies preserved which were on from the seed bank without taking loan healthy vegetables and grains. verge of extinction. from external entities. 2. The productivity of the soil 2. The farmers are getting huge monetary is increased through use of benefit by not using fertilizers and organic composts. pesticides. 3. Maintenance cost is very less for the traditional seeds.
  27. 27. Impact on environment Impact on livelihood economy of Other Impacts communities Nursery plantation and Training to Baidyas on use and sustainability of medicinal plants. 1. The Baidyas are 1. The Baidyas are using the herbals for 1. The community is able collecting herbals in a the treatment of the community more to know the different sustainable manner. actively, hence benefited herbal plants and their 2. They are also planting economically. qualities through and preserving rare nurseries. medicinal plants found in 2. School children are the region. actively nurturing the herbal plants and using for their common uses. Creation and coordination of Forest Protection Committees (FPCs). 1. Vast areas of destroyed 1. Due to forest protection the 1. It has provided scope forest land have been community is getting more NTFPs. for social bonding regenerated. among the community 2. About 1525 Acres of as they realize the existing forest areas are importance of their well protected from the forest. intruders. 2. Better coordination has 3. New plantations are developed between the taking place to increase neighbor villages. the forest land.
  28. 28. OBJECTIVE OF SGP PROJECT BY USS  Utilize the unutilized and under utilized natural resources like land and water to meet their livelihood and development requirement in a sustainable manner.  Ensure food security by promoting sustainable agriculture (both crop & vegetables) among the tribal people – women specially.  Conserve and regenerate depleting natural forest / species and promote social forestry.  Strengthening CBOs for effective participation and process sustainability.
  29. 29. FINDINGS
  30. 30. SHGS  Total 10 SHGs till now; seven in the five old villages and three in 3 new villages.  Before borrowing from the landlords and riches of the nearby villages at 7-10 % interest/month.  Serving the lender free of cost.  Had to keep some valuable things as guarantees .  After saving money through SHGs, they are getting loans from this savings at 3% interest/month without any guarantee.  Rules and regulations have been prescribed for the same.  All activities promoted through SHGs to strengthen institutional activities.
  31. 31. LAND DEVELOPMENT  Before lands were not plain and unfit for cultivation leading to dependency on forest.  As part of the SGP project, about 92.29 Acres of land have been developed for farming.  Total 70 farmers have been benefited through land development activity.  Out of them 18 farmers were met and the details are provided below.
  32. 32. Before After
  33. 33. Total developed Land Village Name No of Farmers Total Area of Land Developed (In Acres) Benefited Land Leveling Bonding & Gully Plugging Purnachandrapur 14 4.8 15.77 Kolha 26 15 16.5 Genjasahi 9 4.04 12.94 Haridapal 10 5.79 5.64 Bhalumara 11 7.37 4.44 Total 70 37 55.29
  34. 34. Name of Farmer Village Area of Land Return from these lands (In Rs)/Year Developed Before After Development (In Acre) Development Lilabati Mahanta Genjasahi 1 2000 3500 Malati Mahanta Genjasahi 0.75 3000 4000 Pratima Mahanta Genjasahi 2.5 0 3000 Surendra Mahanta Genjasahi 2.5 0 20000 Anand Ku Mahanta Purnachandrapur 3.5 10000 12500 Subhasini Mahanta Purnachandrapur 1 7500 10000 NB: All calculations Rebati Mahanta Purnachandrapur 1 5000 7500 are at current Aasamani Mahanta Purnachandrapur 0.25 1500 2500 market price. Scale: 50 KG of Paddy = Rs Netramani Mahanta Purnachandrapur 0.5 3000 5000 500. Rama Ch Mahanta Purnachandrapur 2.5 0 10000 Debendra Hembram Bhalumara 2.5 1000 10000 Nakula Mahanta Bhalumara 0.5 4000 6000 Krushna Ch Pradhan Kolha 3.5 2500 10500 Kolha Pradhan Kolha 1.5 5000 7500 Poka Pradhan Kolha 0.5 2000 3000 Indramani Mahanta Haridapal 1.5 5000 7500 Bharat Mahanta Haridapal 1 5000 7500 Chintamani Mahanta Haridapal 0.5 2000 4000
  35. 35. 25000 20000 Return from these lands 15000 (In Rs)/Year Before Development Return from these lands 10000 (In Rs)/Year After Development 5000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
  36. 36. Better Farming of 5 other villages IRRIGATION Sreema Seeds (90 Acres) PISCICULTURE DUCK Rearing Kolha Villagers SGP Grant
  37. 37. Village Irrigation Activity Cost (In Rs) Revenue (In Profit (In Rs) Name Land Size Rs) (In Acres) Kolha 27 Water Supply Nil 31500 31500 Haridapal 20 to Sreema Seeds Bhalumara 15 Pisciculture 1000 8000 7000 Genjasahi 3 Duckery 1200 760 (440) Purnachan 15 drapur Haripur 10 Total 2200 40260 38060 Total 90
  38. 38. COST ANALYSIS OF POND 45000 40000 35000 30000 Cost (In Rs) 25000 Revenue (In Rs) 20000 Profit (In Rs) 15000 10000 5000 0 Water Suply to Pisciculture Duckery Total Sreema Seeds -5000
  39. 39. PISCICULTURE  Pisciculture has been promoted in the SGP project for the 44 families not having farming lands.  Initially it has been implemented in three ponds. The cost analysis of this is presented below. 9000 12000 8000 10000 7000 6000 8000 5000 Cost Cost 6000 4000 Revenue Revenue Profit Profit 3000 4000 2000 2000 1000 0 0 1 2 3 1 2 3
  40. 40. Organic Farming SGP Grant Training on Organic Farming (300) Chemical Chemical Fertilizers Fertilizers Organic Organic Composts Composts Productivity Productivity Crops Harmful to Health Healthy Crops BEFORE AFTER
  41. 41. CASE STUDY Farmer’s Name Rama Chandra Mahanta Farm Land 3 Acres Cultivation Paddy, Bitter-Gourd, Tomato, Brinjal, Ladiesfinger, Maize etc. Out of money gained in 3 years from Has built a Pucca Building and Well farming of Brinjal & Bitter-Gourd only. Rest Money from other farmings Utilized for home expenses. Cost of Building Rs 1,29,000 Cost of Well Rs 30,000 Extra Sales last year. 80 KG of Bitter-Gourd seeds@250/KG Certification Best farmer of Jajpur district in 2006.
  42. 42. Agro Service Centre SGP Grant AGRO Service Centre SHG
  43. 43. Sickle sprayer paddy thresher Kurpi winnower
  44. 44. PLANT DISTRIBUTION Village No of Benefited Details of Plants per Families Family Kolha 67 Mango- 3 Purnachandrapur 76 Lemon- 1 Genjasahi 35 Chiku- 1 Coconut- 1 Haridapal 72 Teak- 5 Bhalumara 50
  45. 45. Lemon Mango Teak Coconut
  46. 46. Paddy Maize n Others Ragi Tomato Brinjal Bitter-Gourd Ladies Finger
  47. 47. Seed Distribution SGP Grant Seed Distribution (15 Types of Vegetable And 4 types of Rice) to 300 Families Income Sells the Excess Production Grows Vegetables Consumes with Family
  48. 48. SHG Grain Banks Maintains 10 KG/Year SGP Grant Community Land Lord SALE Grain Bank BEFORE
  49. 49. IMPACTS
  50. 50. Impact on Environment Impact on Livelihood Economy of Other Impacts the Community Land Development 1. Dependency on forest is decreased 1. Community is getting food at 1. Extra income has improved the due to agriculture, hence forest its own. living standard of the community as degradation is reduced. 2. Labor cost during crop they are spending for their welfare. 2. Productivity of the soil has collection has reduced by half 2. It has encouraged the community increased. of the earlier due to lesser for intensive farming. 3. Due to agriculture, food security is grasses. 3. Nearby villages have replicated this sustained. 3. Developed lands are providing activity seeing the results. 4. Underutilized natural resources; extra crop, hence extra income land and water are efficiently by sale. utilized. Organic Farming 1. Productivity of the soil is increased. 1. More use of organic composts 1. Produced crops and vegetables are 2. Lesser use of chemical fertilizers means lower cost of farming as good for health due to lesser use of means lesser harm to environment. these are locally prepared. chemicals. 2. Wastes are properly utilized. Women SHGs 1. Environmental awareness has been 1. Getting loans at lesser interest 1. Due to savings, they are spending generated among the community. than before. for their prosperities such as study 2. Savings implies more of their children. monetary security. 2. It has increased the social bonding 3. Getting loans and other among the women. benefits provided by 3. They are getting outer knowledge. government. 4. Their leadership and management skills have improved.
  51. 51. Impact on Environment Impact on Livelihood Economy of the Other Impacts Community Pond & Pisciculture 1. Water resource is sustainably 1. Getting incomes from fish farming 1. Community has learnt the business utilized. and duck rearing. skills. 2. Lands are watered properly 2. Getting incomes from sale of excess 2. Community is getting water for ensuring food security. water. various uses such as bathing. 3. Biodiversity is conserved. 3. Watering of farmlands at no cost. 3. Have developed management skills. Grain Banks 1. Food security is ensured. 1. People are getting grain at lower 1. It has developed saving attitude in interest rates. the community. 2. Through saving they are generating 2. It has developed management skills more profits. of the community. Agro Service Centre 1. Farming has become more 1. Cost of borrowing agro equipments 1. Time consumption for agriculture efficient, hence dependency on has reduced. has reduced. forest is reduced. 2. SHGs are generating incomes by providing equipments on rent. Plant Distribution 1. Plantation means conservation of 1. Community can get fruits at no cost. 1. It has improved the food habits of environment. 2. It will generate income through sale the community. 2. More oxygen is exerted into of fruits. 2. People can get more vitamins atmosphere. through these fruits. Seed Distribution 1. Vegetable cultivation has 1. Community is getting vegetables on 1. People are getting more nutritional conserved the biodiversity. their own for consumption. foods. 2. Vegetable seeds are preserved 2. Generating income through sale of 2. Has inhibited vegetable through farming. excess vegetables. consumption in the community. 3. Food security is ensured. 3. Waste land is efficiently utilized.
  52. 52. KBPA  A total of 18 schools in Bhubaneswar were visited in the preliminary phase of KBPA campaign.  Voting in 14 schools has been completed.  Rest couldn’t be due to exams n early Vacations.  In 11 schools direct interaction with the students was held through workshops.  The impacts of the campaign are listed as follows.
  53. 53. IMPACTS  The students really felt the situation regarding climate change and expressed their concern for the same.  The teachers too expressed their concern and cooperated in explaining the measures to check the climate change.  The Pick Right component was highly appreciated.  The students choose proven and famous leaders such as Dr. A P J Abdul Kalam Azad, Sachin Tendulkar, Naveen Pattanaik and others as their choice for ambassador to spread the message of climate change.
  54. 54. DETAILS OF THE SCHOOLS VISITED Date of Preliminary Date of Voting No of Students Sl No School Name Phase Phase Voted 1 Kalinga Vidyapitha 27 Feb 2009 15 Apr 2009 66 2 Vivekananda Shiksha Kendra 27 Feb 2009 11 Apr 2009 82 3 Govt. High School, Unit- 6 2 Mar 2009 17 Apr 2009 93 Govt. High School, Power 4 3 Mar 2009 15 Apr 2009 61 House Colony, Unit-8 Prabhujee English Medium 5 4 Mar 2009 13 Apr 2009 121 School Chintamaniswar Girls High 6 6 Mar 2009 9 Apr 2009 74 School Chintamaniswar Girls UP 7 6 Mar 2009 9 Apr 2009 21 School M C Govt. High School, 8 6 Mar 2009 9 Apr 2009 228 Laxmisagar Buxi Jagabandhu English 9 6 Mar 2009 8 Apr 2009 48 Medium School 10 Govt. High School, Unit-1 7 Mar 2009 11 Apr 2009 170 11 Govt. Girls High School, Unit-1 7 Mar 2009 17 Apr 2009 218 12 Govt. Girls High School, Unit-9 7 Mar 2009 13 Apr 2009 228 Children's Centre of Integral 13 7 Mar 2009 8 Apr 2009 36 Education 14 Indira English Medium School 18 Apr 2009 18 Apr 2009 NA
  55. 55. No of Students Voted 250 200 150 100 50 No of Students Voted 0
  56. 56. Explaining KBPA Process Distributing Voting Slips Students Listening Explaining Pick Right Actions

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