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Balbeer Singh
1248126
SZABIST, Karachi
Introduction
• Onco means Cancer
• Oncogene is a gene which in certain circumstances can
transform a cell into a tumor cel...
History
• The term “Oncogene" was coined in 1969 by George Todaro
and Robert Heubner. Of National Cancer Institute.
• The ...
Functions of Proto-Oncogene
• Help to regulate Cell growth and differentiation
• Involved in Signal Transduction
• Involve...
Activation
The proto-oncogene can become an oncogene by a relatively
small modification of its original function. There ar...
Mechanisms of Oncogene
Activation
1. Point Mutation
H-ras [codon 12]
Normal CGC  Gly
Bladder cancer CTC  Val
2. Gene Amp...
3. Gene Translocation
Ex. Burkitt’s Lymphoma
On chromosome 18, there's an
oncogene called BCL2
In people with a certain kind of leukemia, this
gene has been moved in i...
Classification of Oncogene
Secreted Growth Factors
• c-sis, hst
Cell Surface Receptors
• erb B, fms, ret, trk, fes, fms
In...
It is easy to kill cancer, but the
challenge is keeping the patients
alive at the same time
Oncogene
Oncogene
Oncogene
Oncogene
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Oncogene

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Oncogene:, Definition, History, Activation and Mutations

Published in: Health & Medicine

Oncogene

  1. 1. Balbeer Singh 1248126 SZABIST, Karachi
  2. 2. Introduction • Onco means Cancer • Oncogene is a gene which in certain circumstances can transform a cell into a tumor cell. • A Proto-oncogene is a normal gene that can become an oncogene due to mutations or Increased expression • The resultant protein encoded by an oncogene is termed Oncoprotein Proto-oncogene  “Mutation”  Oncogene
  3. 3. History • The term “Oncogene" was coined in 1969 by George Todaro and Robert Heubner. Of National Cancer Institute. • The first confirmed Oncogene was discovered in 1970 and was termed src • In 1976 Drs. Dominique Stehelin, J. Michael and Harold E. Varmus of the University of California demonstrated that oncogenes were activated Proto-Oncogenes, found in many organisms including humans
  4. 4. Functions of Proto-Oncogene • Help to regulate Cell growth and differentiation • Involved in Signal Transduction • Involved in execution of Mitogenic Signals
  5. 5. Activation The proto-oncogene can become an oncogene by a relatively small modification of its original function. There are three basic methods of activation: • A mutation within a proto-oncogene, or within a regulatory region (for example the promoter region), can cause a change in the protein structure. • An increase in the amount of a certain protein • A chromosomal Translocation(another type of Chromosome abnormality)
  6. 6. Mechanisms of Oncogene Activation 1. Point Mutation H-ras [codon 12] Normal CGC  Gly Bladder cancer CTC  Val 2. Gene Amplification Double minutes HSRs Normal copy Multiple copies
  7. 7. 3. Gene Translocation Ex. Burkitt’s Lymphoma
  8. 8. On chromosome 18, there's an oncogene called BCL2 In people with a certain kind of leukemia, this gene has been moved in its entirety from chromosome 18 to chromosome 14.
  9. 9. Classification of Oncogene Secreted Growth Factors • c-sis, hst Cell Surface Receptors • erb B, fms, ret, trk, fes, fms Intracellular Transducers • c-src, c-abl, mst, ras DNA-binding Nuclear Proteins • myc, jun, fos Regulators of the Cell Cycle • bcl, bax, bad
  10. 10. It is easy to kill cancer, but the challenge is keeping the patients alive at the same time

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