Swine flu f inal


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Swine flu f inal

  1. 1. Swine Flu Awareness Program
  2. 2. What is Swine Flu?  Swine influenza refers to influenza caused by those strains of influenza virus, called swine influenza virus (SIV), that usually infect (is endemic in) pigs  Flu viruses are always changing, and new strains emerge every year. The current swine influenza A H1N1 virus is one of these  Swine influenza is common in pigs in the Midwestern United States (and occasionally in other states), Mexico, Canada, South America, Europe (including the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Italy), Kenya, Mainland China, Taiwan, Japan and other parts of eastern Asia and now spreading in India.
  3. 3. What is Swine Flu? • Transmission of swine influenza virus from pigs to humans is not common and does not always cause human influenza, often only resulting in the production of antibodies in the blood. • The meat of the animal poses no risk of transmitting the virus when properly cooked. If transmission does cause human influenza, it is called zoonotic swine flu.
  4. 4. • The 2009 flu outbreak in humans, known as "swine flu", is due to a new strain of influenza A virus subtype H1N1 that contains genes closely related to swine influenza. The origin of this new strain is unknown
  5. 5. History • 1918 pandemic in humans1918 pandemic in humans • 1976 U.S. outbreak1976 U.S. outbreak • 1988 zoonosis1988 zoonosis • 1998 US outbreak in swine1998 US outbreak in swine • 2007 Philippine outbreak in swine2007 Philippine outbreak in swine • 2009 outbreak in humans2009 outbreak in humans
  6. 6. Transmission between pigs • Influenza is quite common in pigs, with about half of breeding pigs having been exposed to the virus in the US. Antibodies to the virus are also common in pigs in other countries. • The main route of transmission is through direct contact between infected and uninfected animals. These close contacts are particularly common during animal transport. • The direct transfer of the virus probably occurs either by pigs touching noses, or through dried mucus. Airborne transmission through the aerosols produced by pigs coughing or sneezing are also an important means of infection..
  7. 7. T R A N S M I S S I O N
  8. 8. Prevention in swine: Methods of preventing the spread of influenza among swine include facility management, herd management, and vaccination. Because much of the illness and death associated with swine flu involves secondary infection by other pathogens, control strategies that rely on vaccination may be insufficient. Prevention
  9. 9. Prevention in humans Prevention of pig to human transmission • Swine can be infected by both avian and human influenza strains of influenza, and therefore are hosts where the antigenic shifts can occur that create new influenza strains. • Use a face mask when dealing with infected animals. The use of vaccines on swine to prevent their infection is a major method of limiting swine to human transmission. Risk factors that may contribute to swine-to-human transmission include smoking and not wearing gloves when working with sick animals.
  10. 10. Prevention of human to human transmission • Influenza spreads between humans through coughing or sneezing and people touching something with the virus on it and then touching their own nose or mouth. • Swine flu cannot be spread by pork products, since the virus is not transmitted through food. • The swine flu in humans is most contagious during the first five days of the illness although some people, most commonly children, can remain contagious for up to ten days. • Diagnosis can be made by sending a specimen, collected during the first five days for analysis.
  11. 11. General Precautions • Frequent hand washing • Covering coughs and sneezes • Avoidance of crowded settings when possible • Advising ill persons to stay home (except to seek medical care) and minimize contact with others in household • Voluntary home quarantine of members of households with confirmed or probable swine influenza cases
  12. 12. When contact is unavoidable… • Consider Facemasks (disposable, single use masks) for persons who enter crowded settings • Consider Respirators (N95 or higher filtering face piece respirator) for persons who have unavoidable close contact with infectious person • No clear scientific evidence regarding the effectiveness of facemasks and respirators in protecting against influenza
  13. 13. Treatment In swine • As swine influenza is rarely fatal to pigs, little treatment beyond rest and supportive care is required. Instead veterinary efforts are focused on preventing the spread of the virus throughout the farm, or to other farms. • Vaccination and animal management techniques are most important in these efforts. • Antibiotics are also used to treat this disease, which although they have no effect against the influenza virus, do help prevent bacterial pneumonia and other secondary infections in influenza-weakened herds.
  14. 14. Chemoprophylaxis Treatment • Pre-exposure – Treat during exposure period and for 10 days after last known exposure to ill confirmed case of swine influenza A (H1N1) virus infection • Post-exposure – Treat for 10 days after last known exposure to ill confirmed case of swine influenza A (H1N1) virus infection
  15. 15. • If a person becomes sick with swine flu, antiviral drugs can make the illness milder and make the patient feel better faster. They may also prevent serious flu complications. For treatment, antiviral drugs work best if started soon after getting sick (within 2 days of symptoms). Beside antiviral, palliative care, at home or in hospital, focuses on controlling fevers and maintaining fluid balance.
  16. 16. Antiviral • ANTIVIRAL: • One of the ways to lessen the symptoms of pandemic flu is to treat infected people with antiviral medicines, which have been used against the current swine flu. However, the drugs must be administered at an early stage to be effective. • Testing has shown that the swine flu can be treated with the antiviral medicines oseltamavir (brand name Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza).
  17. 17. How do Antiviral helps? • Antiviral will help to: • reduce the length of time you are ill by around one day • relieve some of the symptoms • reduce the potential for serious complications such as pneumonia
  18. 18. Vaccination • No vaccine available to protect humans from swine flu • Vaccine for human seasonal influenza does not protect against H1N1 swine flu viruses due to antigenic differences, but may provide partial protection against swine H3N2 virus
  19. 19. Government Authorized Treatment centers for Swine Flu City Hospital Address Contact King Institute of Preventive Medicine (24/7 Service) Guindy, Chennai – 32 (044) 22501520, 22501521 & 22501522 Communicable Diseases Hospital Thondiarpet, Chennai (044) 25912686/87/88, 9444459543 Chenna i Government General Hospital Opp. Central Railway Station, Chennai – 03 (044) 25305000, 25305723, 25305721, 25330300 Naidu Hospital Nr Le'Meridian, Raja Bahadur Mill, GPO, Pune – 01 (020) 26058243 Pune National Institute of Virology 20A Ambedkar Road, Pune – 11 (020) 26006290 Kolkata ID Hospital 57,Beliaghata, Beliaghata Road, Kolkata - 10 (033) 23701252 Coimba tore Government General Hospital Near Railway Station, Trichy Road, Coimbatore – 18 (0422) 2301393, 2301394, 2301395, 2301396 Hydera bad Govt. General and Chest Diseases Hospital, Erragadda, Hyderabad (040) 23814939 Kasturba Gandhi Hospital Arthur Road, N M Joshi Marg, Jacob Circle, Mumbai - 11 (022) 23083901, 23092458, 23004512 Sir J J Hospital J J Marg, Byculla, Mumbai - 08 (022) 23735555, 23739031, 23760943, 23768400 / 23731144 / 5555 / 23701393 / 1366
  20. 20. Mumbai Haffkine Institute Acharya Donde Marg, Parel, Mumbai – 12 (022) 24160947, 24160961, 24160962 Government Medical College Gandhi Nagar P O, Kottayam - 08 (0481) 2597311,2597312 Government Medical College Vandanam P O, Allapuzha - 05 (0477) 2282015 Taluk Hospital Railway Station Road, Alwaye, Ernakulam (0484) 2624040 Sathyajit - 09847840051 Kochi Taluk Hospital Perumbavoor PO, Ernakulam 542 (0484) 2523138 Vipin - 09447305200 All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) Ansari Nagar, Aurobindo Marg Ring Road, New Delhi – 29 (011) 26594404, 26861698 Prof. R C Deka - 9868397464 National Institute for Communicable Diseases 22, Sham Nath Marg, New Delhi – 54 (011) 23971272/060/344/524/449/326 Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital Kharak Singh Marg, New Delhi – 01 (011) 23741640, 23741649, 23741639 Dr. N K Chaturvedi – 9811101704 Gurgaon & Delhi Vallabhai Patel Chest Institute University Enclave, New Delhi- 07 (011) 27667102, 27667441, 27667667, 27666182 Victoria Hospital K R Market, Kalasipalayam, Bangalore – 02 (080) 26703294 Dr. Gangadhar - 94480-49863 Bangalore SDS Tuberculosis & Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Chest Diseases Hosur Road, Hombegowda Nagar, Bangalore – 29 (080) 26631923 Dr. Shivaraj - 99801-48780 Government Authorized Treatment centers for Swine Flu
  21. 21. BE AWARE… Prevention is better than CURE