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Field Tests and Numerical Simulations

BY
NAVEEN.B.P
Research Scholar, IISc
2

Contents
 Introduction
 Analysis for single pile under Vertical Axial Load
 Analysis for single pile under Lateral L...
Single pile under Vertical Axial Load
Field Tests: Routine Vertical Load Test
Field Vertical pile load test data
Load (kN)
0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

0

Settlement (mm)

5
10
15

Tota...
Numerical Simulations
 Axi Symmetry geometry model.
 The element mesh - 15-node element.
 Geometry : 2D: 4m x 14.5m
 P...
Evaluating End Bearing & Skin Friction From Plaxis 2D Curve
Load (kN)
0

250

500

750

1000

1250

1500

1750

2000

2250...
Soil nailing
Fig: Factor of safety =3.17
1. Metro(Jayanagar)-Group of piles (4)
Dia

1.2 m

3.Flyover(Kalyan nagar )-Group of piles (5)
Dia

1.2 m

2. Metro (M.G R...
1. Metro(Jayanagar)-Group of piles (4)
Dia

1.2 m

3.Flyover(Kalyan nagar )-Group of piles (5)
Dia

1.2 m
Comparison of Dynamic load test with Numerical
simulation of PLAXIS 2D
Dynamic Pile Monitoring

HAMMER & CRANE

For each blow determine
• Capacity at time of testing
• Pile integrity
• Pile str...
Numerical Simulation: Plaxis 2D
 Axi Symmetry geometry model.
 The element mesh - 15-node element.
 Geometry : 2D: 5m x...
RESULTS OBTAINED WITH DYNAMIC LOAD TESTS
CORRELATE WELL WITH THE RESULTS OF STATIC LOAD TEST
Load (kN)
0.00
0.00

200.00

...
LATERAL LOADED PILE
FIELD TESTS: LATERAL LOAD TEST

Deflections Under Lateral Loads
Deflections Under Lateral Loads
LOAD(kN)
0.00

20.00

40.00

60.00

80.00

100.00

120.00

140.00

0.00
0.50
1.00
DEFORMAT...
Numerical Modeling: PLAXIS 2D
 Plane strain geometry model.
 The element mesh - 15-node element.
 Geometry : 20m x 25m
...
Comparison Field test and PLAXIS 2D Analysis

LOAD(kN)
0.00

20.00

40.00

60.00

80.00

100.00

120.00

140.00

0.00

1.0...
Lateral Movement of Secant pile wall-Real time monitoring at B’Lore Metro
New type of sensors is developed for
simultaneo...
TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT OF DIFFERENT SENSORS

Nos.
2
4

Inclinometer for ground
movement
Tilt meter for HLA Building

2

Tilt ...
Field measurement of Deformation
2.0

0.00 m

1.0

Deformation
(mm)
0.0

-1.0

-2.0
9/9/11 12:00 AM

9/10/11 12:00 AM 9/11...
Numerical Simulation: PLAXIS 2D
 Plane strain geometry model.
 The element mesh - 15-node element.
 Geometry : 30m x 20...
About 0.48mm lateral deformation has
been obtained from the numerical
simulation at the ground level.
These values can be ...
Comparison of FLAC 3D and PLAXIS 3D
The load-deflection response of a single concrete pile foundation is calculated for lo...
Lateral forces versus lateral displacement at the pile top

Load (kN)
0.00

50.00

100.00

150.00

200.00

250.00

300.00
...
WORK EXPERIENCE
Design of Piles for "Yashodhara Health Care" Building in Bangalore.
Ground Improvement by Stone columns ...
National Conferences:
1)

List of Publications

B.P.Naveen, T.G.Sitharam, S.Vishruth. “Behaviour of Large Diameter Lateral...
Numerical Simulation of Pile using PLAXIS
Numerical Simulation of Pile using PLAXIS
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Numerical Simulation of Pile using PLAXIS

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Numerical Simulation of Pile using PLAXIS

  1. 1. Field Tests and Numerical Simulations BY NAVEEN.B.P Research Scholar, IISc
  2. 2. 2 Contents  Introduction  Analysis for single pile under Vertical Axial Load  Analysis for single pile under Lateral Load  Analysis of Soil nailing  Lateral Movement of Secant pile wall-Real time monitoring at B’Lore Metro.  Comparison of FLAC 3D and PLAXIS 3D
  3. 3. Single pile under Vertical Axial Load Field Tests: Routine Vertical Load Test
  4. 4. Field Vertical pile load test data Load (kN) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 0 Settlement (mm) 5 10 15 Total Load [kN] 20 25 30 35 • This test is for a large diameter pile (diameter = 1300 mm), (Length = 9.5m)
  5. 5. Numerical Simulations  Axi Symmetry geometry model.  The element mesh - 15-node element.  Geometry : 2D: 4m x 14.5m  Pile radius:0.65m ; Length: 9.5m .  5 noded beam-column element. 3 DoF per node.  Ground water table is located at 3.5m.  Stage-wise loading done, upto 3250kN.
  6. 6. Evaluating End Bearing & Skin Friction From Plaxis 2D Curve Load (kN) 0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 2250 2500 2750 3000 3250 3500 0 Total Load [kN] 5 Skin Friction [kN] Base Load [kN] Settlement (mm) 10 Total Load with Plaxis Base Load Plaxis 15 Skin Friction Plaxis 20 25 30 35 40 Method IS code Meyerhoff’s PLAXIS 2D Skin friction (kN) 3674 1940 2183 End bearing (kN) 1646 8840 1067 Total Load ( kN) 5320 10780 3250
  7. 7. Soil nailing
  8. 8. Fig: Factor of safety =3.17
  9. 9. 1. Metro(Jayanagar)-Group of piles (4) Dia 1.2 m 3.Flyover(Kalyan nagar )-Group of piles (5) Dia 1.2 m 2. Metro (M.G Road)-Monopiles Dia 1.6 m 4. Flyover (HSR Layout)-Group of piles (4) Dia 1.0 m FEW PILE LOAD TESTS WHERE I WAS INVOLVED
  10. 10. 1. Metro(Jayanagar)-Group of piles (4) Dia 1.2 m 3.Flyover(Kalyan nagar )-Group of piles (5) Dia 1.2 m
  11. 11. Comparison of Dynamic load test with Numerical simulation of PLAXIS 2D
  12. 12. Dynamic Pile Monitoring HAMMER & CRANE For each blow determine • Capacity at time of testing • Pile integrity • Pile stresses • Hammer performance Last three items detect or prevent problems For driven piles Load (kN) 0.00 0.00 500.00 1,000.00 Settlement (mm) 2.00 4.00 Static Load Test 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 STRAIN GAUGE & ACCELEROMETER
  13. 13. Numerical Simulation: Plaxis 2D  Axi Symmetry geometry model.  The element mesh - 15-node element.  Geometry : 2D: 5m x 15m  Pile radius:0.25m ; Length: 15m .  5 noded beam-column element. 3 DoF per node.  No Ground water table is located.  Stage-wise loading done, up to 120mT. Medium
  14. 14. RESULTS OBTAINED WITH DYNAMIC LOAD TESTS CORRELATE WELL WITH THE RESULTS OF STATIC LOAD TEST Load (kN) 0.00 0.00 200.00 400.00 600.00 800.00 1,000.00 1,200.00 PLAXIS 2D Static Load Test 2.00 Base load by PLAXIS 2D Settlement (mm) Skin friction by PLAXIS 2D 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00
  15. 15. LATERAL LOADED PILE
  16. 16. FIELD TESTS: LATERAL LOAD TEST Deflections Under Lateral Loads
  17. 17. Deflections Under Lateral Loads LOAD(kN) 0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00 120.00 140.00 0.00 0.50 1.00 DEFORMATION (mm) FIELD 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50 Site 4: HSR Layout Deflection at 12 mT is 4.12 mm
  18. 18. Numerical Modeling: PLAXIS 2D  Plane strain geometry model.  The element mesh - 15-node element.  Geometry : 20m x 25m  Pile Dia :1.0m ; Length: 17m .  5 noded beam-column element. 3 DoF per node.  Mohr Coulomb model used for first analysis of problem  Stage-wise loading up to 120 kN.
  19. 19. Comparison Field test and PLAXIS 2D Analysis LOAD(kN) 0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00 120.00 140.00 0.00 1.00 SETTLEMENT(mm) FIELD 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 PLAXIS 2D
  20. 20. Lateral Movement of Secant pile wall-Real time monitoring at B’Lore Metro New type of sensors is developed for simultaneous monitoring and visualization of safety and risk conditions at construction sites. These sensors are designed and built based on the new monitoring concept called “On site visualization” These sensors are capable of sensing data and visually outputting the measurement results simultaneously by using LED for workers and all concerned. Plan (C/s AA which is perpendicular to HAL building alignment
  21. 21. TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT OF DIFFERENT SENSORS Nos. 2 4 Inclinometer for ground movement Tilt meter for HLA Building 2 Tilt meter for scan pile wall 3 Strain gauge for strut 3 Load-cell for ground anchor 2 Typical arrangement of OSV devices at Bangalore Metro Instruments Tile-meter for BSNL Building
  22. 22. Field measurement of Deformation 2.0 0.00 m 1.0 Deformation (mm) 0.0 -1.0 -2.0 9/9/11 12:00 AM 9/10/11 12:00 AM 9/11/11 12:00 AM 9/12/11 12:00 AM 9/13/11 12:00 AM 9/14/11 12:00 AM 9/15/11 12:00 AM 9/16/11 12:00 AM 9/17/11 12:00 AM
  23. 23. Numerical Simulation: PLAXIS 2D  Plane strain geometry model.  The element mesh - 15-node element.  Geometry : 30m x 20m  Pile diameter:0.8m ; Length: 12.6m .  5 noded beam-column element. 3 DoF per node.  8m depth of excavation(stage wise)  Struct 1 is installed at 1.85m.  Struct 2 is installed at 3.5m Geometry model  Young’s Modulus E= 5000+2500z kN/m2 (z is depth in meters below datum).  Total depth of soil layers (8m depth) is divided in 0.5m interval and then E varied for each of the 0.5m.
  24. 24. About 0.48mm lateral deformation has been obtained from the numerical simulation at the ground level. These values can be used to decide the triggering value for the onsite . visualization scheme Load –dispalcement curve of the secant pile wall corresponding to 8m depth of excavation Results from PLAXIS 2D Sl no. Details 1. 2. Bending Moment (kN.m/m) Shear Force (kN/m) PLAXIS ANALYSIS 464.16 304.39
  25. 25. Comparison of FLAC 3D and PLAXIS 3D The load-deflection response of a single concrete pile foundation is calculated for loading in lateral directions.  Axi symmetry geometry model.  The element mesh - 15-node element.  Geometry : X = 8m, Y= 8m, Z= -8m  Pile Dia :0.6m ; Length: 5m .  5 noded beam-column element. 3 DoF per node.
  26. 26. Lateral forces versus lateral displacement at the pile top Load (kN) 0.00 50.00 100.00 150.00 200.00 250.00 300.00 350.00 0.00 5.00 Displacement(mm) 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 35.00 40.00 PLAXIS 3D FLAC 3D
  27. 27. WORK EXPERIENCE Design of Piles for "Yashodhara Health Care" Building in Bangalore. Ground Improvement by Stone columns in elevated road project electronic city in Bangalore. Associated with the Design of Rock anchoring for the shoring piles in Prestige Khodey towers at Bangalore. Design of Piles for Library building in Mysore. Static pile load Test for Toyota in Bidadi. Laterally Loaded Pile Testing for Flyover in HSR Layout in Bangalore. Designing and construction of Tower Foundation for Karnataka Golf Course in Bangalore. Dynamic Pile Load test for Metro work in Bangalore. Pile Integrity Testing for Metro work in Bangalore.
  28. 28. National Conferences: 1) List of Publications B.P.Naveen, T.G.Sitharam, S.Vishruth. “Behaviour of Large Diameter Lateral Loaded Piles in Residual Soils: Field Tests and Simulations”, Indian Geotechnical Conference (IGC), (15-17 December 2011) Kochi, India Vol. 2: 835-839. 2) Naveen.B.P., Sitaram nayak., Pujar.K.L. "Designing and construction of piles under various field conditions " in IGC-2010,Geotrendz(December 16-18),pp.1035-1038. 3) Naveen.B.P, Anil kumar sharma, Sivapullaiah.P.V., Sitharam. T.G., " Waste materials in Geon environmental applications", National conference on recent advance in ground improvement techniques(February 24-25,2011). CBRI, Roorkee,pp.155-164. International Conferences: 1) Naveen.B.P, Sitharam.T.G, Vishruth.S “Numerical Simulation of Laterally Loaded Piles", International Conference on Ground Improvement and Ground control (30 October – 2November 2012), Wollongong, Australia ( Full length paper submitted ). 2) T.G.Sitharam. B.P. Naveen, C.R.Parathasarthy “Numerical simulation of pile load test”, 9th International Conference on Testing and Design Methods for Deep Foundations, (18-20 September,2012) Kanazawa, Japan (Full length paper submitted ). Journal : Naveen.B.P., Sivapullaiah.P.V.,Sitharam.T.G., " Disposal options for solid waste of Bangalore city based on its characteristics", Manuscript ID no IJEWM-19605,International Journal of Environment & Waste Management

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