Lecture 8 from a college level neuropharmacology course taught in the spring 2012 semester by Brian J. Piper, Ph.D. (email@example.com) at Willamette University. Includes neurochemistry, pharmacodynamics.
1.8 Drugs, Brain, & Behavior: Absinthe Brian J. Piper, Ph.D.
1.6 Goals • History • Chemistry • Botany • Pharmacodynamics • Pharmacokinetics "After the first glass, you see things as you wish they were. After the second, you see them as they are not. Finally, you see things as they really are, which is the most horrible thing in the world"
5.6 History • 400 B.C.: wormwood drink used as a herbal remedy by Hippocrates. • 1797: Henri-Louis Pernod opens absinthe distillery in Switzerland, later France. • 1840’s: French soldiers in Algeria drank absinthe to prevent malaria. • Late 1800’s/early 1900’s: Peak of absinthe use • 1905-1915: Bannings. • 1990’s- today: resurgence
5.9 Jean Lanfray (1905) • Laborer from Vaud, Switzerland • Wine (5 L) + Cognac (6 glasses) + Absinthe (2 glasses) = Murder (3+) • Case was media sensation • Fuel for temperance movement Absinthe is Death (circa 1900 by Emile Decoeur)By Leal da Camara (1903)
2.5 Art • Edouard Manet (1859) • The Absinthe drinker • Inspiration = poet Charles Baudlaire?
Art II 1.2 Artist UnknownViktor Oliva: Absinthe Drinker Edgar Degas (1876): L’Absinthe Van Gogh: Still life with Absinthe (1887)Pablo Picasso
2.2 Van Gogh (1853-1890) Starry Night (1889) Self-portrait (1889)
Thujone 2.4 • Poison, causes hallucinations, seizures • GABAA and 5-HT3 antagonistLachenmeier et al. Critical Reviews in Food Science & Nutrition, 46, 365-377.Weisbord et al. (1997) NEJM 337, 825-827.
2.2 Patch-clamp recording • Ions: elements with charge (e.g. Cl-) • Channels: regulate flow of ions into and out of cell
Pharmcodynamics of2.3 Thujone * Serotonin is applied to a cell with a 5-HT3 receptor * 5-HT inhibits the activity of the cell * Thujone Blocks the effects of 5- HT Deiml (2004) Neuropharmacology 46, 192-201.
Is thujone the cause of “absinthism”?5.3 Absinthe Thujone (mg/l) Year of analysis French (1904) < .011 1994 Pernod fils (circa 1900) 6 2002 Pernod Tarragona (circa 1930) 1.8 2004 EU legal limit 35 mg/l. Lachenmeier (2006) Forensic Science International, 158, 1-8.
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome4.5 • Symptoms: severe memory loss, confabulation, damage to mammillary bodies • B1: peas, spinich, liver, cereal • Example 2:20 – 5:24: • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wDcyBXJ AZNM
0.6 Question• Which of the following statements about Absinthe is INCORRECT? A) Absinthe was a popular alcoholic beverage in the 19th century France, especially among artists and intellectuals. B) The thujone content in absinthe was higher in the late 1800’s relative to today. C) The way absinthe acts on the brain is not yet completely understood. D) The acute effects of absinthe are different from ethanol.