Memory Memory is the basis for knowing your friends, your neighbors, the English language, the national anthem, and yourself.If memory was nonexistent, everyone would bea stranger to you; every language foreign; every task new; and even you yourself would be a stranger. 3
DefinitionMemory is learning that has persisted over time.It is our ability to store and retrieve information.Cognitive Psychology & Cognitive Neuroscience 4
Impact of Lack of Memory• Clive Wearing (0:10-7:00)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WmzU47i2xgw&feature=relatedDamage to the temporal cortex (herpes simplexencephalitus)Antereograde AmnesiaSome functions spared. Why? 6
Information Processing Models of Memory (Simple) Keyboard Disk Monitor (Encoding) (Storage) (Retrieval) Sequential Process 7
Information Processing Model (Moderate)1929- 1943- • Atkinson-Schiffrin Model (1968) Duration Size Sensory Memory <1 second Infinite? Short-Term Memory 1/2 minute ≈7 Long-Term Memory 1 lifetime Large 8
Modifications to the Three-Stage Model1. Some information skips the first two stages and enters long-term memory automatically.2. Since we cannot focus on all the sensory information received, we select information that is important to us and actively process it into our working memory. 9
Working Memory Our ability to store and manipulate information for a brief timeCorsi Block Tapping Test Tower of London 11
Working Memory Across the Lifespan • Spatial working memory shows an inverted-U shaped relationship with age. 12Piper et al. (2011) Physiology & Behavior, 103, 513-522.
Part II: Encoding: Getting Information In How We Encode What We Encode
Encoding: Getting Information In How We Encode1. Some information (route to your school) is automatically processed.2. However, new or unusual information (friend’s new cell-phone number) requires attention and effort.
Automatic ProcessingWe process an enormous amount of information effortlessly, such as the following:1. Space: While reading a textbook, you automatically encode the place of a picture on a page.2. Time: We unintentionally note the events that take place in a day.3. Autobiographical: You effortlessly keep track of things that happen to you.
Effortful ProcessingCommitting novelinformation to memoryrequires effort just likelearning a concept from atextbook. Such processingleads to durable andaccessible memories.
Rehearsal Effortful learning usually requiresrehearsal or conscious repetition.Ebbinghaus studied rehearsal by using nonsense syllables:TUV YOF GEK XOZ Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)
Rehearsal The more times the nonsense syllables were practiced on Day 1,the fewer repetitions were required to remember them on Day 2.
Encoding Effects1. Spacing Effect: We retain information better when we rehearse over time.2. Serial Position Effect: When your recall is better for first and last items on a list, but poor for middle items.
What We Encode1. Encoding by meaning2. Encoding by images3. Encoding by organization
Encoding Meaning Processing the meaning of verbalinformation by associating it with whatwe already know or imagine. Encodingmeaning (semantic encoding) results in better recognition later than visual or acoustic encoding.
Visual EncodingMental pictures (imagery) are a powerful aid toeffortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding. Showing adverse effects of tanning and smokingin a picture may be more powerful than simply talking about it.
MnemonicsImagery is at the heart of many memory aids.Mnemonic techniques use vivid imagery and organizational devices in aiding memory.
Organizing Information for EncodingBreak down complex information into broad concepts and further subdivide them into categories and subcategories. 1. Hierarchies 2. Chunking
Hierarchy Complex information broken down into broadconcepts and further subdivided into categories and subcategories.
Chunking IOrganizing items into a familiar, manageable unit. Try to remember the numbers below. 1-7-7-6-1-4-9-2-1-8-1-2-1-9-4-1If you are well versed with American history, chunk the numbers together and see if you can recall them better. 1776 1492 1812 1941.
Chunking II Acronyms are another way of chunking information to remember it.King Phillup Came Over From Germany Singing: K P C O G SOh, Oh, Oh, To Touch And Feel Very Good Velvet Aah Hah:O O O TTAF V G V S H
Whole Report R G T “Recall” F M Q RTMZ (44% recall) L Z S 50 ms The exposure time for the stimulus is so small that items cannot be rehearsed.Sperling (1960) Psychological Monographs, 74 (498), 336.
Partial ReportS X T Low Tone “Recall”J R S Medium Tone JRS (100% recall)P K Y High Tone 50 msSperling (1960) argued that sensory memory capacity was larger than what was originally thought.
Time DelayA D I Low Tone “Recall” TimeN L V Delay Medium Tone N__ (33% recall)O G H High Tone 50 ms
Sensory MemoryThe longer the delay, the greater the memory loss. Percent Recognized 80 60 40 20 0.15 0.30 0.50 1.00 Time (Seconds)
Sensory MemoriesThe duration of sensory memory varies for the different senses. Iconic 0.5 sec. long Echoic 3-4 sec. long Hepatic < 1 sec. long
Working Memory Sensory Working Long-term Memory Memory Memory EncodingEvents Encoding Retrieval Retrieval Projector Off!!
Mini-ExperimentSize Stimuli3 PXR4 H G PA5 ZCMIL6 KHKSDE7 VU JAZ IW8 GOKYRXDN9 SK JE Z FXYT10 UNKMIHCQPF11 RU JAZ IWTKD C 38
Working Memory CapacityMy problem is that I have been persecuted by an integer. For seven years this number has followed mearound, has intruded in my most private data, and has assaulted me from the pages of our most publicjournals. This number assumes a variety of disguises, being sometimes a little larger and sometimes alittle smaller than usual, but never changing so much as to be unrecognizable. The persistence with whichthis number plagues me is far more than a random accident. There is, to quote a famous senator, a designbehind it, some pattern governing its appearances. Either there really is something unusual about thenumber or else I am suffering from delusions of persecution.• Address to the Eastern Psychological Association, April 15, 1955 by George A Miller & published in Psychological Review, 101, 343-352. 39
Working Memory Capacity The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information (1956). Ready? MUTGIKTLRSYP You should be able to recall 7±2 letters. George A. Miller 1920 -http://www.psych.utoronto.ca/users/peterson/psy430s2001/Miller%20GA%20Magical%20Seven%20Psych%20Review%201955.pdf
ChunkingThe capacity of the working memory may be increased by “chunking.” F-B-I-T-W-A-C-I-A-I-B-M FBI TWA CIA IBM 4 chunks
Duration Peterson and Peterson (1959) measured theduration of working memory by manipulating rehearsal. CHJ 547 MKT 544 CH?? HIJ 541 547 … The duration of the working memory is about 20 sec.
Working Memory DurationPeterson & Peterson (1959). Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58, 193-198.